Tuesday, December 31, 2019

The World Trade Center And Pentagon Attacks - 1050 Words

John 1:14 (New International Version): â€Å"The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.† There are many versions of how people interpret the coming of Christ. First, there are the believers, Christians who would sacrifice all things for the world to be saved. Next, the non-believers, the people that bring science into explaining away the scripture. Lastly, the way I believe and the differences God has made in my life. Believers, non-believers, and my belief will be explored. In the seventies, I learned of a San Diego student who burned himself to death in protest of the Vietnam War. Consequently, Buddhists have been known to†¦show more content†¦It reads, â€Å"The theory of evolution by natural selection, is the process by which organisms change over time as a result of changes in heritable physical or behavioral traits (www).† â€Å" . . . [a]ll species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual s ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.† (htt). People today continue to believe that man came to be from evolving over time. As Christians, we know that God created man in his own image. It is written in Genesis 1:27, â€Å"So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them.† Still, we must speak of Saul (later known as Paul), a disbeliever in the time of the New Testament. He actually b elieved in God, but he was instructed in the law. He was fighting against the new teachings of Jesus as the Messiah and salvation by grace through faith. He set out to destroy the church and bring to trial all who followed Christ. Jesus came to Saul, calling out â€Å"Why are you Persecuting me?† (More Than a Carpenter, p. 116). Having fallen onto his face before the Lord, when Saul rose he was blind. The Lord sent Ananias to Saul, explaining that he was the chosen one to spread his message to the Gentiles. Ananias laid hands on him and said: â€Å"Brother Saul, the Lord Jesus, who appeared to you on the road, has sent me so that you might regain your sight and be filled with the Holy Spirit.† (More Than aShow MoreRelatedTerrorism Attacks On The World Trade Center And Pentagon1481 Words   |  6 PagesSince the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon on 11 September 2001, there have been different U.S. strategies to try and combat the rise of global terrorism. The attacks made the entire world all too aware of the scale and scope of threats that terrorism can carry. The post-9/11 global climate has thus seen a shift in awareness of and response to terrorist threats. For the last thirteen years now the United States has denoted terrorism as one of the largest threats to natio nalRead MoreThe Economic Impact of the Attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon587 Words   |  3 PagesThe Economic Impact of the Attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon The effects of the attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon are rippling throughout the world, by sector, by region, and by market. Bond markets, inside and outside the U.S., already jittery from a deceleration in worldwide economic activity, are struggling to find direction in the aftermath of the attack. There now seems little doubt that the U.S. and global economies will slip into recession. The aerospaceRead MoreTerrorist Attacks On The World Trade Center Towers And Pentagon985 Words   |  4 PagesOnce there was a 9/11 truther. He believed that the so-called terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center towers and Pentagon on September 11th, 2001 were secretly ordered and carried out by the United States government as part of a false flag operation to stir up popular outrage against their enemies abroad so that the evil George W Bush could work his will upon the world. Recently, the truther took an Introduction to Physical Science class. The swarmy professor who teaches the course mocked himRead MoreThe Terrorist Attacks On The World Trade Center And The Pentagon On September 111522 Words   |  7 Pages PTSD was originally conceptualized as a disorder of combat veterans. Unfortunately, societies all over the world are being more and more exposed to war and its effects due to the increase of worldwide terrorism. The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001 (9/11), exemplified a blend of extreme violence and man-made disaster previously confined to the battlefield. For American’s terrorism was a new phenomena that brought the atrocities of war to AmericanRead MoreRemember September 11, 2001937 Words   |  4 Pageswill be forever remembered in America’s History. This is the day the world seemed as it stood still. On 9/11, America experienced a major terrorist attack, which hijacked planes were crashed into the World Trade Centers in New York City, crashed into the Pentagon in the District of Col umbia, and had a plane crash into the fields of Pennsylvania. There are many theories on what actually happened and who was involved in the 9/11 attack. The most common word is that Islamic terrorists were the main groupRead More9/11 Cause Effect1279 Words   |  6 Pagesthousands of lives were lost nearly a thousand miles from here. But the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were an attack on the heart of America† (Newman). For every cause there is an effect, and unfortunately the effects of 9/11 are disturbing. I like to say that everything happens for a reason, and the reasons of 9/11 still continue to puzzle the people today. The attacks on world trade center and pentagon on September 11 2001 were tragic and devastating not only for the victimsRead MoreConspiracy Theories Around 9-111460 Words   |  6 PagesThe worst terrorist attack in U.S history occurred on September 11, 2001. According to U.S government officials, nineteen men hijacked four fuel-loaded commercial planes with the intent to destroy the World Trad e Center in New York City, as well as both the Pentagon and the White House in Washington D.C. The attacks began at 8:46am ET when American Airline’s Flight 11 struck the North tower of the World Trade Center, causing chaos on the streets below. Not even twenty minutes later, another commercialRead MoreThe Attack On The World Trade Center Bombing1092 Words   |  5 PagesAmerica has seen many terrorist attacks throughout the world and at home. Seeing them around the world may have hurt, but not as bad as seeing it in your own backyard, when you and your neighbors are being targeted. By definition Terrorism is usually a small group who kills suddenly or secretively. Many terrorist attacks are the attack on the World Trade Center and Pentagon on the attack of September 11,2001, the Oklahoma City bombing, the 1993 World Trade Center Bombing, the Wall Street bombingRead MoreThe World Trade Center And The United States1042 Words   |  5 Pageshijacked planes, 125 at the Pentago n and 2,606 at the World Trade Center and surrounding area† (Goodman). The World Trade Center in Manhattan, and the Pentagon located in Washington D.C. were attacked on September 11, 2001, by American fuel loaded, hijacked by al-Qaeda which was lead by Osama bin Laden, planes. Many things were lost on September things Americans will never be able to get back such as: lives, freedom from war, and millions of dollars. The World Trade Center, also known as the Twin TowersRead MoreThe Terrorist Attack on 9/11641 Words   |  3 PagesThe terrorist attack on September 9, 2001, known as 9/11, was the most devastating terrorist attack to date, due to the high death toll, the suspected secondary explosion found in the Twin Towers, and the explosion at the Pentagon. In order to learn about the 9/11 Terrorist Attack, one must learn more about what happened. On September 9, 2001, at 7:59 am, The American Airlines Flight 11 took off from Boston Logan Airport with 92 people onboard. At 8:14 am, the United Airlines Flight 175 took off

Monday, December 23, 2019

Evolution Of Life On Earth - 1667 Words

Fossils can provide us with a great deal of information about the past. They can also help us to understand the present. When do we believe life on earth originated? The earth cooled from its formation 4.6 billion years ago. Life on earth began 3.5 billion years ago, evidence supporting this statement is that the earliest fossils were found from up to 3.5 billion years ago. The following steps are believed to be the major stages in the evolution of life on Earth: 1. The formation of organic molecules Complex organic molecules formed in water on the early Earth. 2. The formation of membranes A membrane developed to isolate and protect the system of large complex organic molecules which evolved to include nucleic acids and became capable†¦show more content†¦1. The formation of organic molecules Complex organic molecules formed in water on the early Earth. 2. The formation of membranes A membrane developed to isolate and protect the system of large complex organic molecules which evolved to include nucleic acids and became capable of self-replication. Why is fossil evidence in rocks older than 600 million years scarce compared with the number of fossils found in younger rocks? Sedimentary rock forms in layers called strata. Sediment always settles and so the first and oldest stratum is found at the bottom. Newer sediment then settles on top. This means that lower strata are usually older then strata above them. This gives us a way to determine which organism is the oldest. The fossils from the bottom layers of the rock should be the oldest. The earliest organisms had yet to form the ‘hard parts’ that fossils consist of, therefore not being able to be fossilised since most earlier organisms consisted of predominantly soft parts. Organisms of that time and earlier were small, not abundant, and soft bodied. Add in the rock cycle with its weathering, erosion, subduction, melting, and so on, and the reasons are plentiful. There were fewer organisms then since they had only just begun to appear and biodiversity of plants and animals was very little. What type of organism is most likely to be fossilised? -

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Frankenstein and Bladerunner Table Free Essays

IdeaFrankensteinContextBladerunnerContext Doppelganger, defining qualities of humans and monsters†¢Doppelgangers confront †¢Ambiguity of narrative: M not real unless F story verified connection between the two (Gothic) †¢Quest for knowledge, revenge, masculinity, eloquence, love of nature: M: â€Å"The very winds whispered in soothing accents, and maternal nature bade me weep no more† and F: â€Å"my spirits were elevated by the enchanting appearance of nature† †¢Humanity vs. ambition †¢Solidarity vs. connection Blurring between the two – creativity, logic, beauty, abhorrence †¢Abomination as human moral dilemma. We will write a custom essay sample on Frankenstein and Bladerunner Table or any similar topic only for you Order Now Isolated, Laconian figure during monologue evokes pity. Rhetorical questions â€Å"Why should I pity man more than he pities me? Shall I respect man when he condemns me? † †¢Ã¢â‚¬Å"the sun shone upon me as upon man†Ã¢â‚¬ ¢City vs. Country, industrial revolution †¢Gothicism – nature, horror, monsters within society †¢Science overthrowing God – still human? †¢Doppelgangers confront †¢Knowledge vs. instinct †¢Group vs. isolated genius †¢Deckard ‘becomes’ a replicant Replicants positioned as logical, responsive , intuitive, beautiful: Z: vitality; L: revenge, fear, brutality; P: Roy’s kiss, positioning of tongue, immature, instinctive, honest kiss with R in front of S; R: instinct, reason, curiosity, humour, understanding and acceptance †¢Z: public place: mash of culture with their hats on, no connection except murder and death †¢L: D’s doppelganger? R (empathy and connection to D) shoots him †¢P: death of abandoned toy: materialism killed her: laughing doll †¢R: renewal, baptism, dove, blue light sky, lasting connection to D†¢Impersonal information society †¢Migration – different cultures globalisation Contraception†¢ Responsibility of creator and ethical responsibilities of scientists†¢F vs. M †¢Tacit deal – F made M so he is responsible for him †¢M = empathy, F = selfishness , ambition †¢V: greatest good for greatest number †¢Progress needs to be tempered by human empathy †¢Pride and ambition lead to suffering †¢Usurpation of God contradicts responders beliefs and highlight ethical breach â€Å"I should have been your Adam, but I am the fallen angel [Lucifer]† †¢F pleads for a mate. Foucaulian shift: M more human â€Å"You must create a mate for me†¦ I demand it as a right to which you must concede† â€Å"You are my creator but I am you master – obey! †¢empiricism and modernism †¢scientific development and industrial revolution – no questioning of morals – pantheism †¢well received because of hierarchical society – F tells all levels to â€Å"seek happiness in tranquillity and avoid ambition† – confirmation of values†¢Tyrell vs. Roy †¢Created seeks out creator – dopplegangers †¢Created more perfect than creator †¢Created stil l dependant though independent of creator †¢Ethereal vs. physical/ sensual †¢Creations ‘more human than human’ †¢Science and progress at detriment of humanity †¢Impersonal and personal connections Tyrell objectifies replicants: â€Å"she is an experiment, nothing more,† â€Å"you are the prodigal son†Ã¢â‚¬ ¢Consumerism †¢Globalisation – transnationalism †¢Capitalism †¢Loss of identity through loss of culture †¢Mass migration †¢Technology as a part of life Criticism of genius†¢Ã¢â‚¬Ëœgenius’ pride, ambition downfall †¢Genius removes you from human connection God complex †¢Progress must not give way to indulgence †¢M. objectified in the quest for scientific advancement †¢Superficiality of society and lack of concern for human suffering â€Å"If you could precipitate me into one of those ice- rifts†¦ you would not call it murder. †¢F’s creation and pride is corruption of God’s work (storm) †¢Ã¢â‚¬Å"the cup of life was poisoned forever, and although the sun shone upon me, as upon the happy and gay of heart, he saw around him noting but a dense and frightful darkness† †¢Ã¢â‚¬Å"as the dazzling light vanished, the oak had disappeared, and nothing remained but a blasted stump†¦ entirely reduced to thin ribbons of wood† foreshadowing †¢Destruction of innocence and family – Elizabeth, Clerval, William†¢Scientists, philosophers and historians elevated to great levels of importance †¢Reactionaries to change †¢Man creating own destiny – Reformation Effects of industrial revolution – science at the cost of humanity – grave robbers †¢Setting: distinction between nature and human society, the sublime, Romanticism – Byron and Percy (criticism – applies both F and M to nature), comfort, science lab and universit y. †¢Questions pantheism and ‘casual’ science, galvanism†¢Being removed from being human holding yourself above others detriment †¢Instinct and logic is greater than intellect (more human) †¢Overcrowded, paradoxical city, C’s inhospitable lab, T’s Godlike palace, S’s dilapidated and pathetic home†¢Impersonal corporatism, mass media †¢Migration – take over of minority groups Archetypical evil genius – society moe used to impersonal figures of power The agony of isolation and the Outsider†¢Progress – isolation †¢Don’t take human connection for granted †¢Destruction of Bride: M’s last hope of connection destroyed (setting) lose hope †¢Humanity vs. M †¢M vs. F†¢Shelley affair socially shunned †¢Prejudice when revealed she was author (young, 19yo woman)†¢Genius isolation †¢Knowledge = power †¢Safety in numbers†¢Tough military life, searching for stability, wanting what’s impossible †¢Impersonal corporate worlds How to cite Frankenstein and Bladerunner Table, Papers

Friday, December 6, 2019

College Admissions Selling Your Disability Essay Example For Students

College Admissions Selling Your Disability Essay College Admissions Essays Selling Your Disability to the Admissions Office My father was an alcoholic, and I did anything I could to stay away from home. I chose that college because it was the farthest away. But I hated it there, and didnt do very well. Then I began to worry that Id flunk out and have to go home, and of course my grades just got worse. My mother was a drug addict. She did everything a person might do to get money for drugs. Often we didnt have food in the house; if there wasnt money for both, drugs came first. I ran away when I was sixteen, and never even finished high school. They figured that out in my third year of college, and made me take an equivalency test. When my girlfriend got pregnant, we decided to keep the baby. I had to work two jobs to support us, three during the summer. So my grades arent so hot. They found out I had bone cancer in my senior year of high school; I hurt my knee playing basketball, and it wouldnt heal. Ive had six operations in six years, along with the chemotherapy. But it didnt interfere with my studies; what else could I do in the hospital anyway? Each of these cases was presented to me by my clients in the last few years. These clients all had two important things in common. The first is that they overcame incredible obstacles which would have completely demoralized many other people. The second is that, in every single case, the client was embarrassed by these events, and wanted to hide them. Why should I talk about my problems? Lets step back into the admissions office for a minute. The faculty committee is reviewing the files of two applicants. Both have a 3.0 g.p. a. and a 155 LSAT score. Theyre the same age and race, and both went to local colleges. But one is in good health, while the other has suffered from a lifelong kidney disease. They only have one seat left. Which applicant should they admit? They could toss a coin. Or they could decide that, in some cosmic sense, the person with kidney disease deserves the seat. Now what if youre that person, but dont want to tell the law school about the kidney disease, because you dont want to sound like youre asking for favors? You leave them with the option of tossing a coin. Or even worse, they can sense that youre hiding something, but have no idea what. They decide to admit the other, safer applicant. Overcoming significant life obstacles of any sort is evidence to the admissions officer that you have the determination to succeed in school. Youve already shown that you have the will to survive; youre not a quitter. And who you are is measured, at least in part, by how far youve come. Learning Disabilities Law schools vary enormously in their response to any kind of disability. All of it is behind closed doors and litigation-proof. Here are some good general rules: * Be prepared to explain the nature of your disability and the accommodation you are presently receiving in detail. An unexplained disability could be perceived as a risk. * If Law Services gave you accommodation for the LSAT, most law schools will consider your LSAT score the same as if it were taken under normal conditions. They will also give you reasonable accommodations at exam time. * If Law Services denied your request for accommodation, you may have difficulty getting accommodation for your law school exams. You should be prepared to have your undergrad disabilities office contact the Dean of Students at your law school to see what documentation theyll want. You should get any promises of accommodation in writing before you make a final decision to attend. .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d , .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d .postImageUrl , .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d , .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d:hover , .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d:visited , .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d:active { border:0!important; } .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d:active , .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u6066bff49574b770372354af450cc97d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Life Of Pi by Yann Martel Essay* No law school will consider what your LSAT score would have been had you been granted accommodation. At most, some will compare your LSAT score with your SAT/ACT score and your college record, to see whether you outperform your .

Friday, November 29, 2019

Perfect Competition an Example by

Perfect Competition by Expert Lilliana | 02 Dec 2016 Perfect Competition to the economist implies the absence of monopoly power that is the absence of any power on the part of any inpidual firm or consumer to influence market prices. In the perfect market there can be only one price for identical goods at the same moment in time. Need essay sample on "Perfect Competition" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Conditions necessary for a perfect market/industry. 1. Large number of buyers and sellers must be large enough to prevent a single one of them from influencing the market price. In the other words, one single producer or purchaser will be able to influence the market price. The output of any single firm is only a small portion of the total output and the demand of any single purchaser is only a small proportion of total demand. Hence the market price has to be of total demand. Hence the market price has to be taken as given and undertaken by any purchaser and seller. If any seller attempts to change even a slightly higher price then others, the consumer will at once go to the other seller. Thus, no inpidual purchaser can influence the market by varying his own demand and no single firm is in a position to affect the market price by varying his own output. University Students Usually Tell EssayLab specialists: I'm not in the mood to write my paper online. I want to spend time with my friends Specialists propose: Help With Essay Writing Custom Essay Writing Company Pay For Essay Reviews Pay To Write Essay Best Essay Writing Service 2.Homogenous product: The commodity produced by all firms must be highly standardized that is, each unit must be identical with another. As a result, the buyers find that each seller is offering units of a product which are perfect substitutes for each other. Thus, it is immaterial for the purchaser or to who has produced it. 3.Free entry or exit: There shall be no restrictions on the firms entry or exit from that industry. This will happen when all the firms are making just normal profit. If the profit is more, new firms will enter and extra profit will be completed away; and if on the other hand, profit is less, some firms quite raising the profits for the remaining firms. 4. Perfect knowledge: Buyers and sellers have exact knowledge of what is happening in any part of market. This does not necessarily mean that the market involves a small area, but it does emphasis the importance of communication. When buyers and sellers know what prices are being offered by buyers, and buyers know what prices are being asked by the sellers. If follows that buyers can purchase a lowest price and sellers can sell at the highest price. The result of the efforts of buyers and sellers to obtain the best terms for themselves is the establishment of a single price through the market. 5. Actions solely based on price considerations: Buyers and sellers must base their actions solely on price, that is, there is no preference shown for buying from selling to any particular person. There must not be any brand loyalties preferential treatment or discrimination. It implies that no consumer has a favorite shop to which he remains loyal when the owner raises his prices; neither do sellers have favorite customer to who to give special discounts. 6. Perfect mobility of the factors of production: this mobility is essential in order to enable the firms top adjust their supply to demand. If demand exceeds supply, additional factors will move into the industry and in the opposite case move out. Mobility of the factors of production is essential to enable the firms and the industry to achieve on equilibrium position. 7. Absence of artificial restriction: There must not be any restrictions of trade, e.g. price control. The seller should be free to sell their products to any buyer and the buyers should be free to purchase from any seller. When these conditions (outlined above) necessary for a perfect market are fulfilled price differences for the same commodity are quickly eliminated so that one price tends to be established. Nature of market equilibrium. We are going to look on how demand and supply interact, and thus find an explanation of the determination of he price of any commodity in the market. In the theory of price determination, the concept of average and marginal revenue is the indispensable tools of analysis average revenue are the revenue per unit of the commodity sold. But since different units are sold at the same price in the market, therefore, average revenue equals price at which the commodity is sold. Thus, average revenue means price. As the consumers demand curve is the graphic relationship between price and the amount demanded, it also represents the average revenue or price at which the various amounts of a commodity are sold. Since the price offered by the buyer is the revenue from sellers point of view, therefore, average revenue (AR) curve of the firm is really the same thing as demand curve for the consumer. Average revenue can be determined by piding the total revenue by the number of units sold, i.e AR = TR No. of units sold. Marginal revenue: marginal revenue at any level of firms output, is the net revenue earned by selling another (additional) unit of product. If the price of a product falls when more of it is offered for sale, then that would involve a loss of the previous units which were sold at a higher price before, and will now be sold at the reduced price along with the additional one. This loss from the sale of the serious units must be deducted from the revenue earned by the additional unit. Relationship between AR and MR. The relationship between marginal and average revenues at various levels of output will be discussed as shown in the table below. Average revenue and marginal revenue are two different things. Column 3 shows average revenue while column 4 shows the marginal revenue. When average revenue is falling , marginal revenue is less than marginal revenue. Marginal revenue curve and MR , the dotted curve, is the marginal revenue curve. However under perfect competition, the average revenue curve of the firm is a horizontal straight line. This is so because inpidual firm under perfect competition, by its own action, cannot influence the price. The seller under the commodity at the ruling market price. In the case when average revenue curve is a horizontal line, the marginal revenue curve coincides with the average curve. This is because additional units are sold at the same price as before on loss is caused by the previous units which would have resulted if the sole of additional units would have forced the price down. EQUILIBFRUILM OF THE FIRM. A firm is in equilibrium when it has no incentive to change its levels of output when its total profits are the maximum. The equilibrium of a firm is usually discussed in two stages, viz, the short run and the long run. Firms equilibrium in the short run. Under perfect competition for an inpidual firm price is given. It cannot influence the price by its own action. It operates under the assumption that it can sell as much as it likes, at the prevailing price. Therefore, the demand or average revenue curve facing a firm under perfect competition is perfectly elastic at the ruling price. Since a perfectly competitive firm can sell as much as it wants without affecting the price, addition made to total revenue by an extra unit of out put, i.e marginal revenue, is equal to the price (average revenue) of the commodity. Therefore the average revenue or demand curve and marginal revenue would coincide with each other for a firm under perfect completion. Given the price OP, the firm will fix its output where its profits are he maximum. Profits are the largest at the level of output for which marginal cost is equal to marginal revenue and the marginal curve cuts the marginal revenue from below. Firms equilibrium in the long run. The long run is a period of time long enough to permit changes in the variable as well as in the fixed factors. In the long run equilibrium refers to a situation where free and full scope of adjustment has been allowed to economic forces. Both in short run and long run, firm in perfect completion is in equilibrium at that output at which marginal cost equal cost price (or marginal revenue). But in the long run, for a perfectly competitive firm to be in equilibrium besides marginal cost being equal to price. Price must also be equal to average cost. For a perfect competition firm to be in equilibrium. in the long run the following two conditions must be satisfied. Price = marginal cost Price = average cost Equilibrium of industry: The concept of equilibrium of industry is of great importance in the analysis of price determination, particularly in product pricing. An industry Is said to be in equilibrium where there is no tendency for its output to increase or decrease. The output of the industry can vary firstly by the expansion or contraction of output by the inpidual firms and second by the entry or exit of the firms. Thus industry would be in fequilibri9um when neither the inpidual firms have intensive to change their output nor is there any tendency for new firms to new firm to enter or existing firm to leave it. Conditions of equilibrium. The following two conditions must be satisfied if there is to be equilibrium of the industry. (a) Each and every firm in the industry should be in equilibrium. This will happen at that output of a firm where marginal cost is equal to marginal revenue, and marginal revenue cost curve cuts marginal revenue below at the equilibrium point. (b)The second condition is that the industry as a whole should be in equilibrium that is there should be no tendency for the either to move into or out of the industry. This will happen when all the entrepreneurs are earning only normal profits. An industry will be earning normal profits if the price (AR) is to average cost. (AC) . If the price is higher, then obviously normal than normal profits are being made and new fill be attracted to the industry. REFERENCES Anonymous. A Not So Great 2008: Emerging Trends Report.National Real Estate Investor (Online Exclusive),(Oct 17, 2007). Baumol W, (1992); Economics principles Australia, edn, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich BLIX, Marten, 1995, Underlying Inflation- A Common Trends Approach, Bank of Sweden Working Paper No.23 Elkington J.(2001); The Chrysalis Economy, Capstone, oxford. Hahn, E, Core Inflation in the Euro Area: An Application of the Generalized Dynamic Factor Model, Center for financial Studies Working Paper No. 2002/11 (Frankfurt Center for Financial Studies) McTaggart D Finlay C Economics, Pearson education AustraliaWaud R (1997); Macroeconomics; Pearson, Longman.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Great Compromises essays

Great Compromises essays Would the United States of America ever be united if it were not for compromises? I would say the chances are slim. During the early years of the new nation, there was a lot of conflict and turmoil. During the Constitutional Convention of 1786, one of the most essential compromises of the early United States was the Great Compromise. Another compromise that arose at the Constitutional Convention was the Three Fifths Compromise. These two compromises helped to establish the early government issues of the nation. Another compromise that was crucial to the survival of this great nation is the Missouri Compromise. Together these three compromises enabled America to become united. In 1786, fifty-five delegates from twelve of the thirteen states attended the Constitutional Convention. These delegates were there to make changes to the Articles of Confederation, what they did not know was that they would compromise to form a constitution. James Madison from Virginia proposed a plan that called for a three branch government; legislative, judicial, and executive (Notes 2/16/01). This was intended to separate the powers, ensuring that no one group or individual could have too much authority. In this plan was also a system that allowed each branch to check the other. This was instated to protect the interest of the citizen. Much of the controversy surrounding the plan centered on legislation. The plan called for membership in the legislature to be based on population (Tindall Plan. Since the small states disagreed, they formed their own plan. Some fifteen delegates came together and submitted the New Jersey Plan. This plan called for a unicameral legisla ture that had equal representation. It called for each state to have one representative. This legislative branch would have the power to levy taxes, reg...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Socially Responsible Companies in Europe Research Paper - 1

Socially Responsible Companies in Europe - Research Paper Example The paper tells that many companies in various continents treat corporate social responsibility as a key aspect of their company survival technique. It has evolved from being a value-added concept of management to on being among the key concepts. This is because consumers evaluate theirs produces depending on how friendly they are to the environment and their conformance to most of the international laws that business ethics demand be met. Many European companies are among the leading socially responsible companies in the present society. This is true because Europe gets ranked as one of the greatest markets in the world. For this reason, the companies that operate in this zone must be willing to impress their consumers. The FTSE index provides the best tool in monitoring corporate socially responsible companies, in Europe, and the remaining parts of the world. The reshuffle of leading global responsible investment index series provides information on the companies that have adhered to environmental and social laws in the internal business arena. Companies get to fluctuate from one position to another because social laws change daily, and an organization will not be able to conform to each and every that is passed. In addition, not all corporate laws are universal. One of the most common companies that are socially responsible in Europe is Microsoft Europe. This is a company that was invented by Bill Gates and Paul Allen way back in 1975 and has since with co-operation with other companies revolutionized the software computing industry. As a software company, Microsoft does not face common responsibility in terms of social and environmental laws like other production companies. This is because it does not pollute the environment or utilize much of its resources. Despite this, social responsibility has been key to the company because it has since been expanding into different countries that harbor different social values. Microsoft has also been aware of the sec urity issue their customers get to face on the internet, hence introducing free protective softwares such as windows defender. They have also included a vast number of language packs for their software users, hence allowing their products to be used by almost everybody in the world.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Write a research paper dealing with the issue of retention and the

Write a dealing with the issue of retention and the cost of education in colleges and universities in U.S.A. and try to ansver.the following question - Research Paper Example In addition the government owned universities and colleges are cheaper than the private owned. The average fees required for tuition in the private universities in a year is $20,000. In a 4 year term, that would total to $80,000. While in the private institutions is more than $40,000 per year. The wide fee difference between the two sector universities has resulted to increased undergraduate intake in the public universities. The government run colleges and universities have enrolled 70% of the total undergraduate intake a year, with the colleges enrolling half of the country’s full time undergraduates. But not all the public colleges charge minimal amount, colleges such California, fee rate is the same as top end private universities. The rate of graduation in public colleges and universities has fluctuated from 70% to 60% in the past ten years. This is due to the low availability of resources in the public universities as compared to public. The graduation rate in the privat e universities and the top universities has increased from to 50% to 80% this due to the high level of education offered as well as the selective nature of the private universities however, the number of graduates in public universities and colleges is still high when compared to the private owned. The difference in the fees rate charged in the two sectors means that some education accessories are only available in the high end universities and vice versa. In today, only time will tell whether the two education sectors will reach a point and charge tuition fee regardless of access and

Monday, November 18, 2019

Two Journal Entries Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Two Journal Entries - Essay Example If the protection of the environment will be disregarded and we would resort to wanton use of our resources, it would take its toll in the environment that nothing would be left for the future generation to sustain itself except environmental degradation. Taking care of the environment however is a concerted effort and a global concern. In as much as we do our part here in the US, our counterpart in China or India must also do its share in preserving the environment. For what point will it make when we lessen our carbon footprint here when else where in the world is excessive. b. My persuasion is simple but compellig, if we do not act today, we will have another planet in a decade. The damage is already irreversibe and the talks about climate change is real. See Katrina? Tornadoes, floods here and there? They are just the preliminaries of a damaged world. If we continue doing what we are doing right now, the worst is yet to come. a. Journal entry #2: Question 1 under "Writing From th e Text" Hesse summarized the modern organic consumer’s pretension with colorful words such as the oxymoron green consumer, conspicuous and patron of the culture of obsolescence. These are pretenses because these consumerist habits defeat the very purpose of going green and organic of which it was supposed to serve. As Hesse put it, â€Å"It's done with the best of intentions† (page number). Despite all these trumpeting about taking good care of the environment, they still â€Å"buy a lot. They drive a lot (page number)." Hesse called it the oxymoron green consumer because people still buy a lot of putative organic products not realizing that the same habit of over consumption is what takes its toll on the environment. As Hesse would put it "The greenest products are the ones you don't buy." Such, buying a lot, albeit well intended defeats the purpose. This consumerist tendency is done through conspicuousness thinking that if we flaunt that we are buying â€Å"greenâ €  and â€Å"organic† it would make us feel good. The conspicuousness corrupted the organic initiative because it was made as a marketing attraction for even to consume more to the point that â€Å"we buy and buy and hope we're buying the right  other  things, though sometimes we're not sure† (page number). And this is highlighted with our deeply ingrained sense of riding the fad of replacing things that we still need. We used organic and going green as an excuse to â€Å"consumed, burned up, replaced and discarded at an ever-accelerating rate." b. I know a lot of people like this. My neighbor is one. Actually, I was thinking about her when I wrote this paper. When the hybrid cars became in vogue, she readily purchased one even is just purchased a huge SUV. All in all, they got four cars and two SUV’s and there’s just two of them (the other is a husband). Not only that, she virtually changed all here television with that earth friendly television and come to think of it, her television were just a couple of years old and there were five of them. Just last month, she had her who house renovated (at around 800 square meter two stories) to make it more â€Å"nature friendly†according to her. She justifies her latest conspicousness that it is â€Å"hybrid† (for the new cars) anyway and for the replacements and renovations as for the environment. So the purchases were just okay even if they were not

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Sources Of Failure In Strategic Alliance Formulation Commerce Essay

Sources Of Failure In Strategic Alliance Formulation Commerce Essay Today, organizations face global competition and will on the long run only be successful if they can successfully exploit their value delivery potential of the relationships; strategic alliances and partnerships. Organisations that work together for the purpose of mutual benefit is a concept that is gaining ground in business markets, as market leaders now understand that success from collaboration can be a viable competitive advantage. Organisations entering into alliances in the twenty-first century need to size up their prospective partners in order to ensure that they achieve more success than their predecessors. However, identifying the best partner is only the first step in increasing the probably of alliance success. Proper design and coordination are needed to facilitate the stability of an alliance and to achieve an effective working relationship between the partners. Trust and commitment between alliance partners is the ultimate goal. Only then can the true benefits of ente ring into an alliance be realised. It is really important for a company that is interested in forming a strategic alliance that the partner chosen have the internal capacities needed for the performed activity. In other words, the competencies required to achieve the desired goal. In this sense, small differences in terms of management style and culture between the cooperating firms may end up becoming serious problems that make it difficult to create synergies. There are a large number of characteristics (honesty, positive disposition, efficacy, etc.) that can only be appreciated after several years in the relationship. It is convenient for a firm to work informally with another company before formalising the strategic alliance. This can help to assess levels of compatibility and its potential evolution, since it is with daily contact that we can discover the partners habits and tendencies. INTRODUCTION In todays changing and developing business world, strategic alliances have become an important tool for the success many business ventures. According to Ohmae (1989, p 143), last 20 years have been marked an era of world`s development. Some of the evolutions of this period are the globalisation of markets, quick changes in technology, and the expansion of many domestic organizations` boundaries. As result of these rapid motions, strategic alliances have importantly become a competitive necessity. One of the reasons of this necessity is that a single firm is unlikely to have all the resources and capabilities to accomplish global competitiveness. Thus, cooperation between companies which has complementary resources is always important for survival and growth. (Dussauge, Garrette and Mitchell, 1998) According to Morossini (1999), strategic alliances are change for the firms to reduce risks and share resources, gain knowledge and technology, expand the existing product lines, and opport unity to enter new markets. Strategic alliances provide firms to expand their reach without having to maximise their risk or commit themselves beyond their core business. However, as mentioned above, although strategic alliances bring big opportunities and provide conveniences for many companies, at the same time, there are some challenges that can result with failure for the organizations. The percentage of failures of strategic alliances is changeable from a low 30 per cent (Cullen, 2007), to a high 70 per cent (Dacin et al, 2007). Apart from the expecting risks of entering into an alliance competition between partners is often pointed as the major reason for alliance failure (Dacin et al, 1997). Throughout this paper, it will be examined, analysed and discussed that the most frequent sources of failure in forming strategic alliances and what can be done to mitigate these problems. OBSTACLES THAT ALLIANS PARTNERS FACE Obstacles that alliance partners face can be divided into hard and soft issues. Hard factors involve the linking of different financial and control systems and settling legal disputes (The Economist, 1999). On the other hand, soft factors are related to people and human resource issues, which involve building effective working relationships and integrating disparate corporate cultures (Hitt et al, 1999). It is usually the insufficient attention to the soft issues that result in the failure of many strategic alliances. Pertinently, culture permeates a company, and differences can poison any collaboration (The Economist, 1999). The more culturally distant two firms are, the greater the differences in organisational and administrative practices, employee expectations, and the interpretation of strategic issues (Schneider and De Meyer, 1991, p 307). The problem is compounded with cross-border alliances, where language barriers create communication problems. Poor communication often leads to coordination problems, managerial conflict and distrust. Without trust, the cost of transferring managerial practices and technologies will be high, because safeguards against opportunistic behaviour are needed (Park and Ungson, 1997, p 279). Therefore, in order to avoid such problems, firms entering into an alliance need to be culturally compatible. Indeed, it has been suggested that cultural compatibility is the most important factor in ensuring the long-term success of an alliance (Lane and Beamish, 1990, p 87). SOURCES OF FAILURE IN FORMING STRATEGIC ALLIANCES There are always a series of challenges that have to be faced when forming a strategic alliance and the right people need to be recruited in order for the alliance to be a success. Some of these challenges are discussed below: (Tetenbaum, 2001) Small differences in terms of management style and culture between the cooperating companies may end up becoming serious problems that will make it very difficult to create a synergy, therefore leading to a poor financial performance or even total dissolution of the alliance. It is essential for the human resources team to be aware of these differences in order for them to properly formulate and help with the implementation of the organizational strategy within the alliance. I will present some of the differences that help in the success or failures of a strategic alliance and that have to be addressed by the human resource department. Problems that result from human are significant for the implementation of an alliance, and may alone determine its success or failure. For this reason, it is significant that HRM specifies every member`s ability in the organization, within the management team, and what motivates those skills, in order to place the appropriate individuals in key positions. (Tetenbaum, 2001) The most critical period of a strategic alliance is the beginning part which is a period of maximum uncertainty and apprehension for the workers, along that the company has to find a reaction to their logical concerns, giving these employees something better than what they already have, therefore succeeding in establishing stability long enough to guarantee some permanent results. (Tetenbaum, 2001) A strategic alliance usually brings about the introduction of a series of changes in the co-operating organisations behaviour. These changes can be a sign a potential source of challenges and conflicts with the companys personnel which may lead to the failure of the collaboration, if they are not properly sorted out. (Tetenbaum, 2001) The Culture: Although the organizational change derived from the creation of a strategic alliance is conditioned by the attitude of the human resources, this attitude also depends on the personal values and the corporate culture. This brings us to the following subject which gives us another source of problems when implementing a strategic alliance. (Tetenbaum, 2001) Culture: The existence of different cultures is an obstacle that strategic alliances are forced to encounter. The resistance to change may arise because the low rank employees may have not been properly informed of what the goals are; they might be less experienced than top management at working with people form other culture, or they just do not agree with the new alliance. This is why the human resources team is a key element for the strategic alliance. (Tetenbaum, 2001) Different Types of Culture: National and organizational cultures have an impact on the degree of organizational involvement and outcomes. National culture has been defined by Hofstede as, the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group or category of people from another. (Tetenbaum, 2001) WHAT CAN BE DONE TO MITIGATE THESE PROBLEMS? There are some factors and key point that need to be taken into account by organizations when joining into a strategic alliances or a strategic alliance is being formed. Organizations that fit these important points will always be successful. Some of these important factors can be specified as followings: Organisations entering into alliances in the twenty-first century need to size up their prospective partners in order to ensure that they achieve more success than their predecessors. However, identifying the best partner is only the first step in increasing the probably of alliance success. Proper design and coordination are needed to facilitate the stability of an alliance and to achieve an effective working relationship between the partners. Trust and commitment between alliance partners is the ultimate goal. Only then can the true benefits of entering into an alliance be realised. (Saxton, 1997) Executive managers will need to have know-how; however other competencies will be required to create a synergy. Ideally these competencies will be found in all the persons involved with the project. Some of the competencies required by the human resources management team when selecting the members of the strategic alliance are: flexibility, humbleness, integrity, patience, curiosity, and not afraid of making mistakes. It is important that HRM determine whether the right person can be found within the ranks of the company or whether external recruiting is the best choice. This decision is crucial for the future of the alliance. CONCLUSION In order for an alliance to work the human resources team must take the time to understand the challenges existing when putting two companies together and they have to be willing to unite two groups of managers that will have to plan for and build their new organization; they need to be sensitive to the human, organizational culture, and cultural issues that have to be addressed along the way. Most important, the human resource team needs to find and motivate executives that want to grow their businesses and create added value for their shareholders, customers, employees, and themselves. What we can assume from the several researches that have been done is that, cooperation and effective management are major points for the success of the alliance. From the problems that appear within a strategic alliance, these related to the human resource management which participate in the alliance especially stand out. Therefore, using knowledge related asymmetries may be a way to protect a companys specific asset while gaining valuable knowledge from the alliance without attacking the partner company. Another situation that has to be taken into consideration is that the appearance of cultural challenges does not mean that the strategic alliance will be dissolve. The human resources team has to put in place a training programme for cultural understanding to help employees cope with the differences. On the other hand, it is very important to include managers with multicultural skills within the alliance team to be able to sooth any possible tension. Finally, we can observe that the top reason of creating an alliance with another firm is that the union promotes attainment of strategic goals more quickly and inexpensively than if the company acts on its own. Especially in this era of intense change, rapid technological advance and ever-increasing globalization, alliances enable organizations to gain flexibility, leverage competencies, shared resources, and create opportunities that otherwise are unthinkable. Even though reality shows us that the number of strategic alliances that have succeeded is very low.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Physics of Techniques for Roadbuilding on Permafrost Essay -- physics

Building safe, adequate, durable roads over permafrost soil presents unique challenges to the construction industry. It is not suprising that the mechanisms that lie behind these challenges are explained by the laws of physics. Consequently, as concerned professionals from the engineering community look for inovative ways to deal with the permafrost specter, it is in the realm of physics where they look for the elusive techniques that will enable the extension of the transportation infastructure into the northcountry in a safe, efficient, wise, and economic way. This paper will explore the techniques used to build road embankments over frozen soil. In exploring these techniques, every effort will be made to demonstrate the physical concept that is pertinent. But prior to our examination of diferent methods of permafrost resistent roadbuilding techniques we must start by going back to basics. To understand the construction methodology of arctic roadbuilding we need to understand the mechanics and properties of permafrost. It's All About Heat * What is Permafrost? Permafrost is defined as ground that has been at a temperature below the freezing point of water for more than two years. A large portion of the ground in Alaska is defined as permafrost (some estimates say as much as 80 percent). Permafrost can extend to a depth of several hundred feet, or it can be as little as several feet deep. * Is there permafrost in Fairbanks? Yes. We live in an area defined by "discontinuous" permafrost. This classification refers to the fact that some of the ground is frozen, and some of it is not. Also, it is important to note that the permafrost in this area is known as "warm" permafrost. Warm permafrost is at a temperatur... ...ely be used. Both of these systems are currently being experimented with. Time will tell if these promising techniques provide an economical means of constructing roads over frozen ground. Bibliography Experimental Roadways on Permafrost, McHattie, Esch, Zarling, Conner, Goering, State of Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, July 1983 ACE and Thermosyphon Design Features Loftus Road Extension Project, Goering, State of Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, December 2001 Permafrost at the Geological Survey of Canada, http://sts.gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/permafrost/ Alaska DOT Deals With Permafrost Thaws, Stidger, Ruth,Better Roads , June, 2001 Permafrost, A Problem of Building in Alaska, Seibert, Alaska Co Operative Extension Service The Permafrost Investigation ,Jernstrom, Alaska Housing and Finance Corporation

Monday, November 11, 2019

Abstract Somnambulism

Somnambulism, commonly known as sleepwalking, is a parasomnia that has six diagnostic criteria that must be met according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV. It is marked by inappropriate physical behaviors that disrupt sleep. Upon awakening the individual is confused and has no memory of the episode. Sleepwalking peaks in childhood and usually resolves itself in adolescence. Adults that experience sleepwalking are more likely to have had episodes as children. The disorder is most prevalent in females during childhood and men in adulthood.Individuals with mood disorders such as anxiety or depression are more likely to present symptoms of somnambulism. Genetic predispositions are very important when determining whether an individual will develop the disorder. However, it is essential to remember that environmental influences like stressful events are usually needed to galvanize the genetic predisposition. The use of medications can both trigger and correct somnambulism. Along with medications, hypnosis, and anticipatory awakening have also been shown to relieve the symptoms of sleepwalking. Somnambulism can be a dangerous disorder.While asleep individuals have been known to put their own lives, as well as the lives of others at risk. There have even been reports of a people who suffer from somnambulism committing murder while asleep. Courts have acknowledged the excuse of somnambulism to declare an individual innocent of their crime. However, this proposes several dangers. How are we supposed to control these individuals from committing another crime? Also, there have not been enough studies on successful treatment, so how will we know that these individuals will be corrected with treatment?It seems as though the consequences for crimes committed while sleepwalking are inadequate. Somnambulism and the Dangers Sleep disorders are separated into two categories, parasomnias or dyssomnias. Dyssomnias are those that produce extreme sleepi ness or difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Parasomnias are those inappropriate physical behaviors that happen during sleep. Somnambulism, or more commonly sleepwalking, is a parasomnia. What do you picture when you think of a person sleepwalking? Waking up in the middle of the night and aimlessly without consequence aimlessly walking around their room?I bet you didn’t think of a person committing murder. The latter is the least known aspect of somnambulism. This paper will address the dangers, and consequences of somnambulism and whether these consequences are appropriate. According to the authors of the DSM IV, to be diagnosed with somnambulism the patient must meet six specific criterions. The individual must have multiple episodes of rising from bed during sleep. Since sleep walking episodes occur during slow-wave sleep, the somnambulism must take place during the first third of the night (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).During the incident the individu al will have reduced alertness and responsiveness (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). They will also don a blank stare and be unresponsive to the efforts of others to wake them up (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Upon awakening the individual will not remember the events from the night before and will suffer from confusion and disorientation (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). However, after the confusion and disorientation the individual will regain full cognitive processes (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).Most importantly, the sleepwalking must cause some sort of distress and or impairment in different aspects of their life (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Sleepwalking cannot be diagnosed as the formal diagnosis if it is due to substance use or medical conditions (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The individual must meet all of the criteria above to be properly diagnosed as an individual with somnambulism. ree because they were sleepwa lking. More precautions need to be taken before somnambulism can be used as an excuse for murder.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Organic Architecture Essays

Organic Architecture Essays Organic Architecture Essay Organic Architecture Essay One of the most striking personalities in the development of early-twentieth century architecture was Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959). Wright attended the University of Wisconsin in Madison before moving to Chicago, where he eventually joined the firm headed by Louis Sullivan. Wright set out to create architecture of democracy. Early influences were the volumetric shapes in a set of educational blocks the German educator Friedrich Froebel designed, the organic unity of a Japanese building Wright saw at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, and a Jeffersonian belief in individualism and populism. Always a believer in architecture as natural and organic, Wright saw it as serving free individuals who have the right to move within a free space, envisioned as a nonsymmetrical design interacting spatially with its natural surroundings. He sought to develop an organic unity of planning, structure, materials, and site. Wright identified the principle of continuity as fundamental to understanding his view of organic unity: Classic architecture was all fixation. . . . Now why not let walls, ceilings, floors become seen as component parts of each other? . . This ideal, profound in its architectural implications . . . I called . . . continuity. Wright manifested his vigorous originality early, and by 1900 he had arrived at a style entirely his own. In his work during the first decade of the twentieth century, his cross-axial plan and his fabric of continuous roof planes and screens defined a new domestic architecture. Wright fully expressed these elements and concepts in Robie House, b uilt between 1907 and 1909. Like other buildings in the Chicago area he designed at about the same time, this was called a prairie house. Wright conceived the long, sweeping ground-hugging lines, unconfined by abrupt wall limits, as reaching out toward and capturing the expansiveness of the Midwest’s great flatlands. Abandoning all symmetry, the architect eliminated a facade, extended the roofs far beyond the walls, and all but concealed the entrance. Wright filled the wandering plan of the Robie House with intricately joined spaces (some large and open, others closed), grouped freely around a great central fireplace. (He believed strongly in the hearth’s age-old domestic significance. Wright designed enclosed patios, overhanging roofs, and strip windows to provide unexpected light sources and glimpses of the outdoors as people move through the interior space. These elements, together with the open ground plan, create a sense of space-in-motion inside and out. He set m asses and voids in equilibrium; the flow of interior space determined the exterior wall placement. The exterior’s sharp angular planes meet at apparently odd angles, matching the complex play of interior solids, which function not as inert containing surfaces but as elements equivalent in role to the design’s spaces. The Robie House is a good example of Wright’s naturalism, his adjusting of a building to its site. However, in this particular case, the confines of the city lot constrained the building-to-site relationship more than did the sites of some of Wright’s more expansive suburban and country homes. The Kaufmann House, nicknamed Fallingwater and designed as a weekend retreat at Bear Run near Pittsburgh, is a prime example of the latter. Perched on a rocky hillside over a small waterfall, this structure extends the Robie House’s blocky masses in all four directions. The contrast in textures between concrete, painted metal, and natural stones in its walls enliven its shapes, as does Wright’s use of full-length strip windows to create a stunning interweaving of interior and exterior space. The implied message of Wright’s new architecture was space, not mass- a space designed to fit the patron’s life and enclosed and divided as required. Wright took special pains to meet his client’s requirements, often designing all the accessories of a house. In the late 1930s, he acted on a cherished dream to provide good architectural design for less prosperous people by adapting the ideas of his prairie house to plans for smaller, less expensive dwellings. The publication of Wright’s plans brought him a measure of fame in Europe, especially in Holland and Germany. The issuance in Berlin in 1910 of a portfolio of his work and an exhibition of his designs the following year stimulated younger architects to adopt some of his ideas about open plans. Some forty years before his career ended, his work was already of revolutionary significance.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Misunderstanding The Meaning of Love

Misunderstanding The Meaning of Love Free Online Research Papers What is love? What does it mean? Today many people misuse and misunderstand the meaning of love. It is a word that is thrown around and has little to no meaning for some people anymore. Love is a powerful word that harnesses so much emotion that most people have never even felt before. Love is like a big warm blanket that we can always run and snuggle up in without any regret of what we have done. It doesn’t reject us, but loves us for who we are and doesn’t keep a toll for our wrong doings. Like everything in this world, it is two sided; has both its benefits and fallbacks. The true meaning of love is so defined that it seems almost impossible to meet and really truly love someone. The generation of today has forgotten the true meaning of love. To start out, we need to define what this word is in our culture today. According to the fourth edition of the Webster’s New World College Dictionary, love is, â€Å"a deep and tender feeling of affection for an attachment or devotion to a person†¦ a strong liking for or interest in something†¦ sexual passion, sexual intercourse† (850). So in our own world of today, we see love as an attachment, an interest, or the act of sex. For some it’s all of the above, but what about those who just see it as one of these? There are different definitions within the dictionary for different cases, so is love the same thing? No. Our world is so corrupt in its thinking that we can’t even come up with a simple definition for something that as human beings, feel so passionately about. We are so confused that we give different cases, or situations that the word can be, not is, what we are saying. And we wonder why we don’t understand certain things anymore. Love is not a hard thing to define. If one were to take family for an example, what is love in this case? Love here is forever, not easy, forgiving, trusting, faithful, support, helpful, selfless, tests ones patients, and confusing at times. What other relationships sound like this in our world today? In the people spectrum, how about friends and neighbors and role models. If we really take the time to think about it, by this list of what love is, we can say that we have a love for music, or sports, or pets. It is when people add in what love is accepted as that we start to loose sight of the true meaning. So if we know what love is, than what is it not? There are a lot of things that love is not. Love is not an attraction or stimulate like the hot girl or guy you see walking down the street that you get the â€Å"hots† for. Love is not sex or a synonym for sex as our world conceives it today. It is not unkempt promises that husbands give to wives and vice a versa. It is not forced, no one can tell you whom you love or are supposed to love. Lastly, love is not easily angered. To have love for someone or something, one must have patience. You cannot love something and be angry at it all the time. This goes with every aspect of ones life. Take music for example; if one is angered easily by the difficulty of music, than why put oneself through agony and despair when all it does is frustrate. The things that we love as humans, we know because no matter what obstacles come in our way we will do everything in our power to make sure that is living and well. Love is our motion of purpos e in a lot of cases in our life. By love being somewhat of a driving force, love is more than just an emotion. In a quest to find out what others felt about love as an emotion, a discussion broke out with my roommate Jacob Montague. â€Å"Love is not an emotion,† he stated. â€Å"It is an action. You can say that you love your mom, but do you really love her if you never do what she asks of you?† This also goes with the saying, â€Å"actions speak louder than words.† There are people in this world who have a very hard time expressing they way they feel to people. So it is the little things in life that really mean a lot to them and allow them to express how they really feel. Walking up and giving hugs, holding hands, kissing, or things not as physical: opening doors, helping with assignments, trusting others with responsibility, or leaving little notes of encouragement to someone in their mailbox. Love is as much as an action as it is an emotion. But what really is the definition of love? How can one pick an absolute definition? If one were to look in the worlds best selling book, The Bible, 1 Corinthians 13:1-8 says: If I speak in tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am only a resounding gong of a clanging cymbal. If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. If I give all I possess to the poor and surrender my body to the flames but have not love, I gain nothing. Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always preservers. What powerful words of wisdom. Even though this is the Christian definition of the love given by God, who can argue with these points? This is a very high standard for someone to live up to, but the rewards of this kind of love are gratifying beyond your most desirable dreams. In this case of love, love is like a big warm blanket that we can always run and snuggle up in without any regret of what we have done. It doesn’t reject us, but loves us for who we are and doesn’t keep a toll for our wrong doings. To love someone in this sense, how could one ever fight or be unsatisfied with someone? We are all human beings and are prone to make mistakes. If one doesn’t believe in sin, they believe in good and evil and wrongdoings. And by truly loving someone in this sense and not keeping a record of them, and truly being able to forgive them in any circumstance, there wouldn’t be this nonsense of 40-50 percent of all marriages ending up in a divorce according to di vorcerate.org, and the rate only gets worse for following marriages after a divorce. But now the question is what is the difference between this kind of love and true meaning of love. The love that we have for our spouses, versus our family, versus friends and everything we feel passionately about. Is there a difference? There is a difference in the emotions felt for different people, just as there are different actions that are expressed to show one’s love. For friends, the love is based on respect and trusting of opinions and value systems. These are the people we like to show our love through giving them our time. The love towards family is based on support, and forgiveness and trusting of opinions as well. We show them love through support, always being there for them, the time given, and the opinions that are given as a guide through life. For love towards objects and passions such as sports and music is the self-gratification that is received from the accomplishments that are gained from each. But although each of these are all different with how they ar e expressed, they all have the same Once our generation realizes what love truly is, and not just a lustful attraction, our world as a whole will become a better place. When people can start to love others rather than just themselves, forgive others for their wrong doings, and accept people for who they are then we won’t have problems such as war and terrorism. Love is the passion to forgive under any circumstance, the grace to forget all wrong doings, the sacrifice of oneself for another, and the ability to be kind in the face of utter devastation and remorse. Can people achieve this love? The answer is yes, but the desire to have it, use it, and become a part of it is up to every individual to make that choice. Research Papers on Misunderstanding The Meaning of LovePersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementWhere Wild and West MeetThe Masque of the Red Death Room meanings19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraHip-Hop is ArtThe Project Managment Office SystemThe Fifth Horseman

Monday, November 4, 2019

Historical contributions of a Sigmund Frued to the field of psychology Term Paper

Historical contributions of a Sigmund Frued to the field of psychology - Term Paper Example As such, Freudian concepts, which were widely debated among his followers and scholars, were deemed to be controversial yet remained to be worthy of our examination and understanding. This paper will look back at the historical contributions of a Sigmund Freud to the field of psychology. By examining his early life, one can explore his childhood and its influence on his understanding of human behavior. Also, his theories on dream interpretation, psychosexual development, the id and the ego, psychological repression, and transference will be explored to know more about his controversial theories in psychology. Moreover, by taking a look at three of Freud’s notable followers, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and his daughter Dr. Anna Freud, one can explore on how Freud’s ideas have influenced his followers to develop their own theory of the mind. Finally, discussion of Freud’s legacy and contribution to psychology will seal his achievements as one of the most important thi nkers in the 20th century. Early Life On May 6, 1856, Sigismund Schlomo Freud was born in Freiberg, Moravia - a small town which was then part of the Austrian Empire, now known as the Czech Republic. His father, Jacob was a textile dealer and had two children by previous marriage. His mother Amala, who was 20 years younger than his father, gave birth to his first son Sigmund at age 21. Being the first child of eight siblings and in accordance to Jewish tradition, young Sigmund became the favorite in the family. He grew up "partially assimilated, mostly secular Jew†. Soon, Freud would become loyal follower of 19th century positivists in which he pointed the distinction between religious faith (which is not checkable or correctable) and scientific inquiry (which is both). For himself, this meant the denial of truth-value to any religion whatever, including Judaism.   A. Life & Education in Vienna When he was four years old, his father met a business failure and this made his f amily to move from the mountains of Moravia to a cosmopolitan metropolis in Vienna. A bright boy, Freud was admitted to a gymnasium in Leopoldstadt a year ahead of his time in 1865. By the time he graduated in 1873, he was awarded with honors. Initially, Freud intended to study law, but then decided to enter Medical School after having attended a lecture on Goethe's essay On Nature. He then joined the medical faculty at the University of Vienna where he obtained his doctorate in medicine. As early as from  1876  to  1882, Freud worked as a research assistant at the Institute of Physiology under Ernst Brucke, with neurology as his main focus.    In 1885 Freud received a one-year scholarship with Charcot at the "Salpetriere" in Paris. In 1886 Freud opened his first neurologist's office in Vienna, Rathausstrasse 7. Under Jean-Martin Charcot, Freud practiced and observed hypnosis as a clinical technique, and began to formulate the beginnings of his theory on the mind. Freud went on to make nervous ailments his specialty, concentrating on hysteria. B. Published Works By 1895, the year he published  Studies on Hysteria  with Josef Breuer, he had made significant progress in mapping out and defining his own theory of the mind. A period of intense work and self-analysis, further inspired by the death of his father, led Freud to his publication of  The Interpretation of Dreams  in 1900 and of  Psychopathology of Everyday Life  in 1901. The latter work, offering amusing and easily applicable anecdotes of Freudian slips, found a wide audience for his theories of the mind. By 1902 he finally gained the position of associate professor at the University of Vienna. In 1908 Freud established a Psychoanalytic society in Vienna, and thus his

Saturday, November 2, 2019

The Chrysanthemums Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Chrysanthemums - Essay Example Her working apparel is clean and provides security to her while working. She is very particular about her self cleanliness as well as of her farmhouse and ""The Chrysanthemums". She declares that her gardening skills were result of her mother's dextrousness in same work. She has just crossed her youth life and has a craving for going out and experiencing the kind of life other people live and to experience new things. She enjoys a very healthy and humorous relation with her husband who makes sure that he starts or leaves the conversation on a laughing note. Her husband who owns a ranch keeps her happy and cares for her well being. She is very observing and inquisitive by nature and keeps check on her surroundings and notes minute details about some things while even working on her beloved Chrysanthemums. Elisa has a face that becomes strong while assertings herselfat work and changes to more softness when she talks to her husband. Lean and strong, at the same time her face is mature and handsome to be seen as masculine while working on relatively softer stems and branches of the flowers. She is thorough with her work with matching knowledge and skilled hands. She loves going out and away from the usual chorus of farm work. She gets intrigued by stories of life that other people live, and also likes experimenting with things. The moment discussion gets towards chrysanthemums, Elisa gets emotionally attached to them and she helps anyone who appreciates the flower for its heavenly hue. She is a believer and a gifted lady. The spring wagon man initially has some off note talk with Elisa but then talks around things in order to get what he actually wants, the work that he pleaded initially to her. The behaviour of Elisa towards the untidy clothed man was rather appreciable and emphatical. And at last but not least, in parts of story, Elisa is depicted as a somewhat sensuous and very beautiful lady who pampers her self as much she works in her flower garden. At the e nd of the day when she gets ready to go out with her husband, she dresses up lovingly. Now we will talk about the character named Henry Allen. He is the owner of the ranch and Elisa is his wife. He loves Elisa very much and keeps her happy in her strenuous work, around the flower garden. He has an air of romanticism around him whenever he talks to her wife and has a good sense of humour with perfect timing. He plans things around pretty well and manages the ranch well also. There is also mention of him selling some fordson at a rate which was profitable. He and his wife share a very fulfilling relation together and his teasing and witty yet hilarious remarks refreshes Elisa quickly. Ain the end of the story while riding a roadster, he is very understanding and caring to her wifes responses and tries to reinforce her smile back. He loves his wife very much and it shows silently in their normal conversations. In the end we will have to discuss the character of a spring wagon chariot who is a daily wager and is not well off in his clothes, attire and vehicle which has a rather amusing fleet of one horse and one donkey clubbed

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Fiancial Information for managers Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Fiancial Information for managers - Coursework Example The four financial statements are the income statement, balance sheet, the statement of retained earnings, and the statement of cash flow. The purpose of this paper is analyze and describe how managers can utilize ratio analysis to analyze the financial results of an enterprise. Managers can utilize the data contained in the financial statements to perform analysis of the financial state of the company. A technique that can be used by managers to analyze the financial performance of a corporation is ratio analysis. Ratio analysis involves using financial formulas that utilize whose inputs are data retrieved from the financial statements of the company. There are different categories of financial ratios. Two of those categories are liquidity, profitability, and financial leverage ratios. In order to illustrate the value of ratio analysis this paper includes a ratio analysis of Marney Ltd. Appendix A shows financial ratios corresponding to the fiscal years 2008 and 2009. The ratios that are included in the analysis are gross profit margin, operating profit margin, current ratio, acid test ratios, average sales period, and average settlement period for account receivables. The gross margin of a company is calculated by dividing net profit by sales (net income / sales). Managers should seek a high gross margin metric. Firms that have low gross margin are not attractive common stock investments because its profitability is poor and the firm may run the danger of ending up with negative net margins. Gross margin is considered a ratio of broad profitability (Garrison & Noreen, 2003). The gross margin of Marney Ltd in 2008 was 46.3%. The gross margin figure of the company is good. In the following year the gross margin of the company was 41.4%. The movement in gross margin of the company from one year to the other was a reduction in gross margin of 4.9%. A reduction in gross margin is a bad sign. The reduction in gross margin could have occurred due to higher

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Congestive Heart Disease Essay Example for Free

Congestive Heart Disease Essay The main function of a healthy heart is to ensure proper blood flow throughout the body and supplying all the organs with the nutrients that are necessary for survival. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is also known as Congestive heart disease, but for this paper we will use failure, Consistent with the research. Congestive heart failure is a disease that primarily causes the heart to be compromised. This leaves the heart unable to perform the main function of pumping blood throughout the body to maintain homeostasis. Congestive heart failure affects mostly individuals 65 years and older; however it can happen at any time. Anderson, et al 2010). According to Goldberg Konstam, â€Å"It is also one of the most common forms of heart disease. Approximately 4. 9 million Americans suffer from CHF, with about 400,000 new cases diagnosed annually. † (as cited in Mithal, Mann, Stone, 2002, p. 46). Prevention methods are important factors for avoiding this disease. There are several treatments available for congestive heart failure that focus on reducing fluids from the body to remove congestion from the heart or reduce blood pressure in the arteries. The heart can be described as muscular pump; it’s primary function is to pump blood. The heart consists of four chambers. The upper two chambers are called the atriums and the lower two chambers are called the ventricles. As the heart contracts, blood is pumped through the body with the assistance of four heart valves. Blood that is low in oxygen flows back to the heart after circulating through the body. The blood enters through veins and enters the right atrium. This chamber empties blood through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The right ventricle continues to pump the blood under low pressure through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery. The blood is now directed to the lungs where it gets fresh oxygen. After the blood is oxygenized, the blood will have a bright red appearance, and it is now considered rich with oxygen. The blood will now return to the left heart through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium. From there it passes through the mitral valve and enters the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps the oxygenated blood out through the aortic valve into the aorta. The aorta takes blood to the body’s general circulation. Congestive heart failure is the inability of the heart to sufficiently supply the body with oxygenated rich blood adequately. The hearts primary function is to move blood throughout a network of vessels. The blood provides the cells of the body with oxygen and nutrients needed while also removing waste products of the body and releasing carbon dioxide. Organs such as the brain, liver, lungs, intestines and kidneys are also compromised. When the weakened muscles of the heart is unable to supply the kidneys with the necessary amount of blood the kidneys are compromised. The kidneys are now unable to perform their function of excreting sodium and water. This causes the body to retain fluid, which directly affects the lungs. The lungs now become congested with fluids known as pulmonary edema. The liver is similarly affected with the accumulation of fluids due to the inability to excrete wastes. This causes a huge accumulation of toxins in the body. The intestines will also be affected and will not be able to absorb the necessary nutrients for daily function. Without treatment CHF will eventually corrupt and attack every organ of the body. Common symptoms include swollen legs or ankles and difficulty breathing. Weight gain is often seen due to the accumulations of fluid within the body. (American Heart Association, 2010 ; Anderson, et al 2010). There are several factors that commonly contribute to congestive heart failure. Coronary heart disease is an accumulation of plaque resulting in a narrowing or hardening of the arteries that supplies blood to the heart muscle known as the myocardium. This is the most common type of heart disease resulting in the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. (MedlinePlus, 2010). Another factor is hypertension (high blood pressure), which refers to high pressure found in the arteries. Approximately one in three adults in the United States (73 million people) are estimated by The American Heart Association (2010) to be diagnosed with high blood pressure. A myocardial infarction, producing a thick scar tissue and interfering with the heart muscles normal function is another factor which could result in a heart attack. Heart valve disease has been linked to congestive heart failure as well. This could be a result of an outbreak of rheumatic fever or some other causes. Another factor contributing to congestive heart failure would be an infection of the heart lining known as endocarditis causing damage to the heart valves or possibly a myocardium of the heart known as myocarditis. Other common causes are alcohol and drug abuse, arrhythmias, obesity, ardiomyopathy and congenital heart defects. (American Heart Association, 2010). There are several ways to prevent congestive heart failure. Diet management is a key factor in securing a future without congestive heart failure. Maintaining a proper diet is crucial. Being overweight will act as a burden to the heart causing it to work harder to pump blood throughout the body. It is necessary to reduce sodium intake to avoid retaining fluids. The next step would be to increase potassium intake. Individuals who have congestive heart failure are usually prescribed diuretics to help excrete fluids causing a loss of potassium. Potassium can be found in green leafy vegetables and most fruits, particularly bananas, oranges, and dried fruit. Other factors for congestive heart failure prevention would involve exercise, no smoking and limited alcohol consumption. (Health-cares, 2010). There are many factors used for treatment for congestive heart failure. Various drugs are incorporated into treatment for congestive heart failure. The uses of drugs are intended for reducing fluids within the body or to reduce blood pressure in the arteries of the body. Typical drugs used for treatment are Ace inhibitors, beta-blockers, digitalis, diuretics and vasodilators. Beta-blockers are intended to improve function for the left lower ventricular pumps. Diuretics are intended to assist in eliminating products that primarily contribute to congestion such as salt and water. Digitalis serves a very important role in strengthening the heart so it can serve as a more efficient, reliable, and effective pump. Treatment may involve surgery if the failure is a result of a poor functioning heart valve. Surgery could involve repair or replacement of a heart valve or in drastic cases, replacement of the heart itself. General treatment will also consist of exercise, weight loss, rest and specific attention to maintaining a suitable diet plan. (American Heart Association, 2010). The Practice Framework of a person that has congestive heart failure is greatly affected. Individuals must reduce the amount of exertion on their bodies to prevent over stimulating the heart. The limitations caused by the failure make performing even routine tasks more difficult. Some of the activities of daily living (ADL’s) that this individual might have issues with might be, getting dressed and undressed, toileting, personal hygiene, bathing and eating. Some Instrumental ctivities of daily living (IADL’s) that might be affected could include preparing meals, taking medications, shopping (food or clothes), using the phone, house work, managing money and bills. As an Occupational Therapist (OT), One can educate patient/individual on the importance of reduced fluids and stress will make for a better heart and a healthier individual. The individual needs to learn that sucking or chewing on an ice cube is better than drinking a glass of water. Due to the increasing amount of fluids the medications are trying to get out of the body, drinking would be just adding more to the body and also adding more tress on the body. The roles/routines/habits will have to change because of the congestive heart failure and how the individual now has to take it slower and easier to get the job done. OT addresses any shortness of breath (SOB) and fatigue that might accrue during any of their daily living activities, routines, habits ect. Individuals learn to use adaptive equipment to help decrease the energy used to get the job done. Examples would consist of using a shower instead of a tub (if applicable), have grab bars inside and outside the shower, have a bath bench/chair with a hand-held shower head and a long handled sponge for easier athing. Less bending over for easier dressing/undressing by using open front garments with buttons/snaps, using a button hook if need be; use a dressing stick to put on lower extremities (LE) garments. Use a lighter comforter for less weight; use a step stool to reach things to reduce straining. Keep the house cooler and if the patient/individual is SOB outside have a portable pocket hand held fan/fan with mister. To reduce strain and stress have a garbage can with wheels would be very useful. One more example might be to have a recliner to keep legs up as well as change positions frequently for circulation. OT’s also each how to break down the tasks into small components to make the task at hand more manageable. For instance laundry is a big task for anyone, so instead of doing all the laundry in one day, do smaller loads spread out or one load a day. Pull the laundry out of the drier and hang it up as soon as laundry is done to save the wrinkles and then having to iron in addition too. Use lighter pots and pans to cook with. Having the appliances at arm’s length, waist level, within easy to reach to help with saving body energy. OT’s do whatever it takes to get the individual back to independently living a healthier life to the best of their ability. Congestive heart failure is a condition that needs to be specifically addressed and treated. The condition can be managed by complying with lifestyle changes, following a treatment plan, and taking prescribed medications. Without following a treatment plan the disease will consume the organs of the body causing irreversible damage. It is important to be aware of limitations concerning the disease to avoid over exertion which can be fatal. â€Å"Early intervention in the treatment of Congestive heart failure is crucial in providing the best outcome. † (Ciccone, 2007).

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Cultural Diversity in the Workplace Essay

Cultural Diversity in the Workplace Essay Introduction: The worlds increasing globalization requires more interaction among people from diverse cultures, beliefs, and backgrounds than ever before. People no longer live and work in an insular marketplace; they are now part of a worldwide economy with competition coming from nearly every continent. For this reason, profit and non-profit organizations need diversity to become more creative and open to change. Maximizing and capitalizing on workplace diversity has become an important issue for management today. Human Resource management is on managing people within the employer-employee relationship. This involves the productive use of people in achieving the organizations strategic objectives and the satisfaction of individual employee needs. Where its objective is to measure target to be achieved within a certain time frame. Diversity management is management initiated, rather than required by law. This involved in integrating non-traditional employees (such as women and minorities) into the workforce and using their diversity to the organizations competitive advantage, as well as considering other workforce diversity characteristics that need to be addressed to ensure fair and effective utilization of employees. (Raymond J. Stone, 2008)Diversity in management includes: Cultural diversity is the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole. (The term is also sometimes used to refer to multiculturalism within an organization. Management of cultural diversity has been suggested as the human resource strategy enabling the effective management of the workforce diversity created by demographical changes generally in the late 1980s and the early 1990s. Retrieved from Oya Aytemiz Seymen(2006), according to Fleury (1999) explains cultural diversity management as an organizational answer or reaction to the need for competitiveness and to the increasing variety of the workforce. In the same resource, it has been stated that management of cultural diversity implies a holistic focus in order to create an organizational environment that allows all the employees to reach their full potential in pursuing the organizational goals. Gender diversity means the proportion of males to females in the workplace. It is a more even distribution or is the employee pool composed of mostly males or mostly females. This can have an effect on how people interact and behave with one another in the workplace and would impact culture and social environment. Similarly other demographics such as population, racial characteristics and such all contribute to the work environment. According to Kochan et al., 2003, organizations are finding that racial and gender diversity, if managed well, may even enhance performance(retrieved from Luis L. Martins and Charles K. Parsons,2007). Researchers have proposed that a greater organizational emphasis on gender diversity management programs will have a positive effect on organizational attractiveness among women, as women are the intended beneficiaries of the programs (Luis L. Martins and Charles K. Parsons,2007) Age diversity means the proportion of aged people work in the workplace. Age diversity was also positively correlated with health disordersbut only in groups working on routine decision-making tasks. Gender composition also had a significant effect on group performance, such that groups with a high proportion of female employees performed worse and reported more health disorders than did gender-diverse teams. As expected, effects of gender composition were most pronounced in large groups. Effects of age diversity were found when controlling for gender diversity and vice versa. Thus, age and gender diversity seem to play a unique role in performance and well-being. The moderating role of task complexity for both effects of age diversity and the moderating role of group size for both effects of gender diversity further suggest that the impact of these 2 variables depends on different group processes.( Ju ¨rgen Wegge and Carla Roth, Barbara Neubach and Klaus-Helmut Schmidt Ruth Kanfe r , 2008) Religious diversity is an important component of cultural diversity, which educators are now taking seriously in their pedagogies. However, cultural diversity and religious diversity are often evaluated quite differently. In our society now, there is at least a polite and superficial consensus that cultural diversity is here to stay and may enrich life. Minimally, people realize that cultural, ethnic, and class chauvinism create problems and are inappropriate, though they may be difficult to overcome. Regarding religious diversity, quite a different evaluation is often employed. Many people value the feeling that their religion is indeed superior to others and regard such religious chauvinism as a necessary component of religious commitment, or even a virtue to be cultivated among the faithful. In their official theologies, most religions have dealt with religious diversity only in a cursory or inadequate fashion. Frequently, religions have encouraged mutual hostility by teaching tha t foreign religions are not only different, but also demonic, or at least inferior. (Rita M. Gross(1999) retrieved from http://www.crosscurrents.org/gross.htm) Body: Benefits of Workplace Diversity An organizations success and competitiveness depends upon its ability to embrace diversity and realize the benefits. When organizations actively assess their handling of workplace diversity issues, develop and implement diversity plans, multiple benefits are reported such as: Increased adaptability Organizations employing a diverse workforce can supply a greater variety of solutions to problems in service, sourcing, and allocation of resources. Employees from diverse backgrounds bring individual talents and experiences in suggesting ideas that are flexible in adapting to fluctuating markets and customer demands. Broader service range A diverse collection of skills and experiences (e.g. languages, cultural understanding) allows a company to provide service to customers on a global basis. Variety of viewpoints A diverse workforce that feels comfortable communicating varying points of view provides a larger pool of ideas and experiences. The organization can draw from that pool to meet business strategy needs and the needs of customers more effectively. More effective execution Companies that encourage workplace diversity inspire all of their employees to perform to their highest ability. Company-wide strategies can then be executed; resulting in higher productivity, profit, and return on investment. Challenges of Workplace Diversity Taking full advantage of the benefits of diversity in the workplace is not without its challenges. Some of those challenges are: Communication Perceptual, cultural and language barriers need to be overcome for diversity programs to succeed. Ineffective communication of key objectives results in confusion, lack of teamwork, and low morale. Resistance to change There are always employees who will refuse to accept the fact that the social and cultural makeup of their workplace is changing. The weve always done it this way mentality silences new ideas and inhibits progress. Implementation of diversity in the workplace policies This can be the overriding challenge to all diversity advocates. Armed with the results of employee assessments and research data, they must build and implement a customized strategy to maximize the effects of workplace diversity for their particular organization. Successful Management of Diversity in the Workplace Diversity training alone is not sufficient for your organizations diversity management plan. A strategy must be created and implemented to create a culture of diversity that permeates every department and function of the organization. (Retrieved from http://www.diversityworking.com/employerZone/diversityManagement/?id=9) In preparing an organization to accept diversity, it is more important to change the corporate culture or to change structure of the organization. Organization Culture Basically, organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Culture is comprised of the assumptions, values, norms and tangible signs (artefacts) of organization members and their behaviours. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. Culture is one of those terms thats difficult to express distinctly, but everyone knows it when they sense it. For example, the culture of a large, for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different that that of a university. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture, what they brag about, what members wear, etc. similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someones personality. Corporate culture can be looked at as a system. Inputs include feedback from, e.g., society, professions, laws, stories, heroes, values on competition or service, etc. The process is based on our assumptions, values and norms, e.g., our values on money, time, facilities, space and people. Outputs or effects of our culture are, e.g., organizational behaviours, technologies, strategies, image, products, services, appearance, etc. (Retrieved from http://managementhelp.org/org_thry/culture/culture.htm) Identification with an organization is a fixed sense of ones role in relation to the organization. When organizational members identify with their workplace, they define themselves in terms of the organization; they internalize its mission, ideology, and values and they adopt its customary ways of doing things. Eventually the member may see him or herself as an exemplar or microcosm of the organization. Organizational identification, in other words, suggests a feeling of oneness with the organization. Diversity makes open organizational culture more rich, and insights and innovation more applicable to a wide range of contexts. High levels of identification with an organization can limit diversity by reducing communication competencies in the area of social perception skills, including the ability to pick up on the subtleties of social situations and adapt to them. This skill is essential in a cross cultural context. High levels of identification among employees can also produce a la ck of organizational flexibility and creativity, over-conformity to organizational dictates, and tyrannical behaviour on the part of leaders. Highly-identified individuals could experience a lack of risk taking, loss of an independent self, and burnout. Redding indicates that a focus on high-performance goals in a context of trust and openness make it easier for employees to manage the ambiguity of gaining their sense of identity from shared visions rather than from a physical structure. Knowledge of self and openness in relation to shared goals create a safety zone in which people feel free to explore new ideas and new ways of approaching problem solving. (Retrieved from http://workplacewellness.blogspot.com/2005/08/identity-development-and.html) Organizational Structure Diversity is often viewed as a training program, limited to a human resources initiative focused on race and gender and separate from organizational change efforts. However, as the article describes, the definition of diversity is much broader, encompassing primary, secondary, and tertiary dimensions that go beyond race and gender. The aim of diversity is to allow all individuals to contribute fully to the success of the organization. Thus, integrating diversity and organizational change efforts can enhance the success of most types of organizational change. Organization development theory and principles can also add significantly to the outcomes of diversity initiatives through the effective use of contracts, assessments, action research methodology, and other critical components. In the current competitive world, diversity and organization development must be partners in successful organizational change efforts. (Ginger Lapid-Bogda, Ph.D., 1998) The Contribution of diversity to organizational Integrating diversity and organizational change efforts can enhance the success of most types of organizational change. All major organizational change involves a cultural change, and a diversity effort is cultural change at its core. It requires an organization to search its collective soul and focus on essential aspects of its culture: seminal values; organizational demands for conformity in thought, interpersonal style, and action; power structure and power dynamics; employee participation; and inclusion/exclusion issues, to name a few. Cultural Differences In addition, most organizational changes involve diversity components. An organizational redesign, for example, may combine functions that have previously been separate, such as marketing and manufacturing. Certainly, marketing and manufacturing have two distinct cultures and a successful redesign needs to pay attention to those cultural issues involved. Diversity offers both the perspective and the technology to deal with these intercultural issues, whether they are triggered by redesigns, mergers, or global expansions. When an organization is redesigned, some of its subsystems discover they have to transact a new form of business with new, unfamiliar partners. Naturally, they assume that their established styles of doing business, their traditional practices, priorities, values, and methods, will be perfectly acceptable, perfectly functional. Thus, marketing is surprised when this assumption turns out to be invalid for manufacturing. Marketing assumes that its new partner, manufact uring, simply has not appreciated the benefits of changing and adapting to marketings traditional way of doing business. Thus, organizational redesign invariably leads to organizational conflict. A diversity perspective adds insight to the identification of and techniques for the management of such issues. Conflict, by definition, means that differences exist. These differences may be based on style, role, values, priorities, power, mental models and patterns of thinking, or culture. The diversity perspective of valuing and utilizing differences offers a positive framework from which to manage conflict. (Ginger Lapid-Bogda, Ph.D., 1998) Team Effectiveness Team effectiveness has even clearer diversity connections. For a team to develop and be effective, its members must find productive ways to both elicit and manage individual and subgroup differences. In any group development model, there is always some version of a storming stage fairly early in a groups development. The group must navigate this troublesome phase successfully to evolve toward more productive phases of development. Successful navigation cannot occur if differences are submerged or conformity is forced upon diverse members. To be effective means to acknowledge differences and to utilize them creatively to gain the teams objectives. (Ginger Lapid-Bogda, Ph.D., 1998) Organizational Cultural Shift In the case of a complex organization change (for example, going from a production-driven to a marketing-driven focus or moving toward Total Quality), a fundamental shift in organizational culture must occur. A cultural change of this magnitude and complexity poses a major challenge for most organizations because of the ambiguity involved and the enormity of the task. An understanding of diversity enables organizations to find ways not to insist on conformity in a major change process, but to encourage employees to contribute, to take a fresh look, and to continuously evolve. (Ginger Lapid-Bogda, Ph.D., 1998) Diversity oriented HRM policies It is the responsibility of the HR manager to facilitate the organizations ability to use staff efficiency and effectively to achieve strategic business objectives. The HR manager is also responsible for ensuring that all employees are rewarded fairly and equitably for their contributions to the organizations. Fair and equitable rewards not only includes wages and salaries, but also opportunities for training and career development and the provision of a work environment in which all workers are treated with respect. Ensuring that all employees are treated fairly and equitably is not only a matter of legal and ethical responsibility, but also recognises that employees who perceive that they are receiving unfair or inequitable treatment may be less committees to the organization and thus may be less productive. The HR manager can achieve these outcomes by: Identifying the significant difference in their organizations workforce and in the labour market from which they draw employees. Exploring the potential advantages to be gained from hiring persons from particular groups. Identifying relevant diversity factors existing in the present workforce. Developing, implementing, monitoring and evaluating staff management practice that facilitate the ability of each employee to contribute effectively to the organization and to be rewarded appropriately. It is also the professional and business responsibility of the HR manager to establish audit measure that identify and quantify the advantage gained from diversity employment practice and that minimise the costs of diversity employment. (Raymond J. Stone, 2008)Diversity in management includes: Conclusion A diverse workforce is a reflection of a changing world and marketplace. Diverse work teams bring high value to the organizations. Respecting individual differences will benefit the workplace by creating a competitive edge and increasing work productivity. Diversity management benefits associates by creating a fair and safe environment where everyone has access to opportunities and challenges. Management tools in a diverse workforce should be used to educate everyone about diversity and its issues, including laws and regulations. Most workplaces are made up of diverse cultures, so organizations need to learn how to adopt to be successful practices. References: Stone, Raymond J., (2008). Human resource management, 6th edition Seymen, Oya Aytemiz., (2006). The cultural diversity phenomenon in organisations and different approaches for effective cultural diversity management: a literary review Martins, Luis L., Parsons, Charles K., (2007). Effects of Gender Diversity Management on Perceptions of Organizational Attractiveness: The Role of Individual Differences in Attitudes and Beliefs Wegge, Ju ¨rgen., Roth, Carla., Neubach, Barbara., Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut., Kanfer, Ruth., (2008). Age and Gender Diversity as Determinants of Performance and Health in a Public Organization: The Role of Task Complexity and Group Size M. Gross, Rita., (1999). Religious Diversity: Some Implications for Monotheism, retrieved from http://www.crosscurrents.org/gross.htm Lapid-Bogda, Ginger, Ph.D., (1998). Diversity and Organizational Change, retrieved from http://www.bogda.com/articles/DiversityandOrgChange.pdf http://www.diversityworking.com/employerZone/diversityManagement/?id=9 http://managementhelp.org/org_thry/culture/culture.htm http://workplacewellness.blogspot.com/2005/08/identity-development-and.htm