Friday, November 29, 2019
Perfect Competition by Expert Lilliana | 02 Dec 2016 Perfect Competition to the economist implies the absence of monopoly power that is the absence of any power on the part of any inpidual firm or consumer to influence market prices. In the perfect market there can be only one price for identical goods at the same moment in time. Need essay sample on "Perfect Competition" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Conditions necessary for a perfect market/industry. 1. Large number of buyers and sellers must be large enough to prevent a single one of them from influencing the market price. In the other words, one single producer or purchaser will be able to influence the market price. The output of any single firm is only a small portion of the total output and the demand of any single purchaser is only a small proportion of total demand. Hence the market price has to be of total demand. Hence the market price has to be taken as given and undertaken by any purchaser and seller. If any seller attempts to change even a slightly higher price then others, the consumer will at once go to the other seller. Thus, no inpidual purchaser can influence the market by varying his own demand and no single firm is in a position to affect the market price by varying his own output. University Students Usually Tell EssayLab specialists: I'm not in the mood to write my paper online. I want to spend time with my friends Specialists propose: Help With Essay Writing Custom Essay Writing Company Pay For Essay Reviews Pay To Write Essay Best Essay Writing Service 2.Homogenous product: The commodity produced by all firms must be highly standardized that is, each unit must be identical with another. As a result, the buyers find that each seller is offering units of a product which are perfect substitutes for each other. Thus, it is immaterial for the purchaser or to who has produced it. 3.Free entry or exit: There shall be no restrictions on the firms entry or exit from that industry. This will happen when all the firms are making just normal profit. If the profit is more, new firms will enter and extra profit will be completed away; and if on the other hand, profit is less, some firms quite raising the profits for the remaining firms. 4. Perfect knowledge: Buyers and sellers have exact knowledge of what is happening in any part of market. This does not necessarily mean that the market involves a small area, but it does emphasis the importance of communication. When buyers and sellers know what prices are being offered by buyers, and buyers know what prices are being asked by the sellers. If follows that buyers can purchase a lowest price and sellers can sell at the highest price. The result of the efforts of buyers and sellers to obtain the best terms for themselves is the establishment of a single price through the market. 5. Actions solely based on price considerations: Buyers and sellers must base their actions solely on price, that is, there is no preference shown for buying from selling to any particular person. There must not be any brand loyalties preferential treatment or discrimination. It implies that no consumer has a favorite shop to which he remains loyal when the owner raises his prices; neither do sellers have favorite customer to who to give special discounts. 6. Perfect mobility of the factors of production: this mobility is essential in order to enable the firms top adjust their supply to demand. If demand exceeds supply, additional factors will move into the industry and in the opposite case move out. Mobility of the factors of production is essential to enable the firms and the industry to achieve on equilibrium position. 7. Absence of artificial restriction: There must not be any restrictions of trade, e.g. price control. The seller should be free to sell their products to any buyer and the buyers should be free to purchase from any seller. When these conditions (outlined above) necessary for a perfect market are fulfilled price differences for the same commodity are quickly eliminated so that one price tends to be established. Nature of market equilibrium. We are going to look on how demand and supply interact, and thus find an explanation of the determination of he price of any commodity in the market. In the theory of price determination, the concept of average and marginal revenue is the indispensable tools of analysis average revenue are the revenue per unit of the commodity sold. But since different units are sold at the same price in the market, therefore, average revenue equals price at which the commodity is sold. Thus, average revenue means price. As the consumers demand curve is the graphic relationship between price and the amount demanded, it also represents the average revenue or price at which the various amounts of a commodity are sold. Since the price offered by the buyer is the revenue from sellers point of view, therefore, average revenue (AR) curve of the firm is really the same thing as demand curve for the consumer. Average revenue can be determined by piding the total revenue by the number of units sold, i.e AR = TR No. of units sold. Marginal revenue: marginal revenue at any level of firms output, is the net revenue earned by selling another (additional) unit of product. If the price of a product falls when more of it is offered for sale, then that would involve a loss of the previous units which were sold at a higher price before, and will now be sold at the reduced price along with the additional one. This loss from the sale of the serious units must be deducted from the revenue earned by the additional unit. Relationship between AR and MR. The relationship between marginal and average revenues at various levels of output will be discussed as shown in the table below. Average revenue and marginal revenue are two different things. Column 3 shows average revenue while column 4 shows the marginal revenue. When average revenue is falling , marginal revenue is less than marginal revenue. Marginal revenue curve and MR , the dotted curve, is the marginal revenue curve. However under perfect competition, the average revenue curve of the firm is a horizontal straight line. This is so because inpidual firm under perfect competition, by its own action, cannot influence the price. The seller under the commodity at the ruling market price. In the case when average revenue curve is a horizontal line, the marginal revenue curve coincides with the average curve. This is because additional units are sold at the same price as before on loss is caused by the previous units which would have resulted if the sole of additional units would have forced the price down. EQUILIBFRUILM OF THE FIRM. A firm is in equilibrium when it has no incentive to change its levels of output when its total profits are the maximum. The equilibrium of a firm is usually discussed in two stages, viz, the short run and the long run. Firms equilibrium in the short run. Under perfect competition for an inpidual firm price is given. It cannot influence the price by its own action. It operates under the assumption that it can sell as much as it likes, at the prevailing price. Therefore, the demand or average revenue curve facing a firm under perfect competition is perfectly elastic at the ruling price. Since a perfectly competitive firm can sell as much as it wants without affecting the price, addition made to total revenue by an extra unit of out put, i.e marginal revenue, is equal to the price (average revenue) of the commodity. Therefore the average revenue or demand curve and marginal revenue would coincide with each other for a firm under perfect completion. Given the price OP, the firm will fix its output where its profits are he maximum. Profits are the largest at the level of output for which marginal cost is equal to marginal revenue and the marginal curve cuts the marginal revenue from below. Firms equilibrium in the long run. The long run is a period of time long enough to permit changes in the variable as well as in the fixed factors. In the long run equilibrium refers to a situation where free and full scope of adjustment has been allowed to economic forces. Both in short run and long run, firm in perfect completion is in equilibrium at that output at which marginal cost equal cost price (or marginal revenue). But in the long run, for a perfectly competitive firm to be in equilibrium besides marginal cost being equal to price. Price must also be equal to average cost. For a perfect competition firm to be in equilibrium. in the long run the following two conditions must be satisfied. Price = marginal cost Price = average cost Equilibrium of industry: The concept of equilibrium of industry is of great importance in the analysis of price determination, particularly in product pricing. An industry Is said to be in equilibrium where there is no tendency for its output to increase or decrease. The output of the industry can vary firstly by the expansion or contraction of output by the inpidual firms and second by the entry or exit of the firms. Thus industry would be in fequilibri9um when neither the inpidual firms have intensive to change their output nor is there any tendency for new firms to new firm to enter or existing firm to leave it. Conditions of equilibrium. The following two conditions must be satisfied if there is to be equilibrium of the industry. (a) Each and every firm in the industry should be in equilibrium. This will happen at that output of a firm where marginal cost is equal to marginal revenue, and marginal revenue cost curve cuts marginal revenue below at the equilibrium point. (b)The second condition is that the industry as a whole should be in equilibrium that is there should be no tendency for the either to move into or out of the industry. This will happen when all the entrepreneurs are earning only normal profits. An industry will be earning normal profits if the price (AR) is to average cost. (AC) . If the price is higher, then obviously normal than normal profits are being made and new fill be attracted to the industry. REFERENCES Anonymous. A Not So Great 2008: Emerging Trends Report.National Real Estate Investor (Online Exclusive),(Oct 17, 2007). Baumol W, (1992); Economics principles Australia, edn, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich BLIX, Marten, 1995, Underlying Inflation- A Common Trends Approach, Bank of Sweden Working Paper No.23 Elkington J.(2001); The Chrysalis Economy, Capstone, oxford. Hahn, E, Core Inflation in the Euro Area: An Application of the Generalized Dynamic Factor Model, Center for financial Studies Working Paper No. 2002/11 (Frankfurt Center for Financial Studies) McTaggart D Finlay C Economics, Pearson education AustraliaWaud R (1997); Macroeconomics; Pearson, Longman.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Great Compromises essays Would the United States of America ever be united if it were not for compromises? I would say the chances are slim. During the early years of the new nation, there was a lot of conflict and turmoil. During the Constitutional Convention of 1786, one of the most essential compromises of the early United States was the Great Compromise. Another compromise that arose at the Constitutional Convention was the Three Fifths Compromise. These two compromises helped to establish the early government issues of the nation. Another compromise that was crucial to the survival of this great nation is the Missouri Compromise. Together these three compromises enabled America to become united. In 1786, fifty-five delegates from twelve of the thirteen states attended the Constitutional Convention. These delegates were there to make changes to the Articles of Confederation, what they did not know was that they would compromise to form a constitution. James Madison from Virginia proposed a plan that called for a three branch government; legislative, judicial, and executive (Notes 2/16/01). This was intended to separate the powers, ensuring that no one group or individual could have too much authority. In this plan was also a system that allowed each branch to check the other. This was instated to protect the interest of the citizen. Much of the controversy surrounding the plan centered on legislation. The plan called for membership in the legislature to be based on population (Tindall Plan. Since the small states disagreed, they formed their own plan. Some fifteen delegates came together and submitted the New Jersey Plan. This plan called for a unicameral legisla ture that had equal representation. It called for each state to have one representative. This legislative branch would have the power to levy taxes, reg...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Socially Responsible Companies in Europe - Research Paper Example The paper tells that many companies in various continents treat corporate social responsibility as a key aspect of their company survival technique. It has evolved from being a value-added concept of management to on being among the key concepts. This is because consumers evaluate theirs produces depending on how friendly they are to the environment and their conformance to most of the international laws that business ethics demand be met. Many European companies are among the leading socially responsible companies in the present society. This is true because Europe gets ranked as one of the greatest markets in the world. For this reason, the companies that operate in this zone must be willing to impress their consumers. The FTSE index provides the best tool in monitoring corporate socially responsible companies, in Europe, and the remaining parts of the world. The reshuffle of leading global responsible investment index series provides information on the companies that have adhered to environmental and social laws in the internal business arena. Companies get to fluctuate from one position to another because social laws change daily, and an organization will not be able to conform to each and every that is passed. In addition, not all corporate laws are universal. One of the most common companies that are socially responsible in Europe is Microsoft Europe. This is a company that was invented by Bill Gates and Paul Allen way back in 1975 and has since with co-operation with other companies revolutionized the software computing industry. As a software company, Microsoft does not face common responsibility in terms of social and environmental laws like other production companies. This is because it does not pollute the environment or utilize much of its resources. Despite this, social responsibility has been key to the company because it has since been expanding into different countries that harbor different social values. Microsoft has also been aware of the sec urity issue their customers get to face on the internet, hence introducing free protective softwares such as windows defender. They have also included a vast number of language packs for their software users, hence allowing their products to be used by almost everybody in the world.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Write a dealing with the issue of retention and the cost of education in colleges and universities in U.S.A. and try to ansver.the following question - Research Paper Example In addition the government owned universities and colleges are cheaper than the private owned. The average fees required for tuition in the private universities in a year is $20,000. In a 4 year term, that would total to $80,000. While in the private institutions is more than $40,000 per year. The wide fee difference between the two sector universities has resulted to increased undergraduate intake in the public universities. The government run colleges and universities have enrolled 70% of the total undergraduate intake a year, with the colleges enrolling half of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s full time undergraduates. But not all the public colleges charge minimal amount, colleges such California, fee rate is the same as top end private universities. The rate of graduation in public colleges and universities has fluctuated from 70% to 60% in the past ten years. This is due to the low availability of resources in the public universities as compared to public. The graduation rate in the privat e universities and the top universities has increased from to 50% to 80% this due to the high level of education offered as well as the selective nature of the private universities however, the number of graduates in public universities and colleges is still high when compared to the private owned. The difference in the fees rate charged in the two sectors means that some education accessories are only available in the high end universities and vice versa. In today, only time will tell whether the two education sectors will reach a point and charge tuition fee regardless of access and
Monday, November 18, 2019
Two Journal Entries - Essay Example If the protection of the environment will be disregarded and we would resort to wanton use of our resources, it would take its toll in the environment that nothing would be left for the future generation to sustain itself except environmental degradation. Taking care of the environment however is a concerted effort and a global concern. In as much as we do our part here in the US, our counterpart in China or India must also do its share in preserving the environment. For what point will it make when we lessen our carbon footprint here when else where in the world is excessive. b. My persuasion is simple but compellig, if we do not act today, we will have another planet in a decade. The damage is already irreversibe and the talks about climate change is real. See Katrina? Tornadoes, floods here and there? They are just the preliminaries of a damaged world. If we continue doing what we are doing right now, the worst is yet to come. a. Journal entry #2: Question 1 under "Writing From th e Text" Hesse summarized the modern organic consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s pretension with colorful words such as the oxymoron green consumer, conspicuous and patron of the culture of obsolescence. These are pretenses because these consumerist habits defeat the very purpose of going green and organic of which it was supposed to serve. As Hesse put it, Ã¢â¬Å"It's done with the best of intentionsÃ¢â¬ (page number). Despite all these trumpeting about taking good care of the environment, they still Ã¢â¬Å"buy a lot. They drive a lot (page number)." Hesse called it the oxymoron green consumer because people still buy a lot of putative organic products not realizing that the same habit of over consumption is what takes its toll on the environment. As Hesse would put it "The greenest products are the ones you don't buy." Such, buying a lot, albeit well intended defeats the purpose. This consumerist tendency is done through conspicuousness thinking that if we flaunt that we are buying Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢ â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"organicÃ¢â¬ it would make us feel good. The conspicuousness corrupted the organic initiative because it was made as a marketing attraction for even to consume more to the point that Ã¢â¬Å"we buy and buy and hope we're buying the rightÃ otherÃ things, though sometimes we're not sureÃ¢â¬ (page number). And this is highlighted with our deeply ingrained sense of riding the fad of replacing things that we still need. We used organic and going green as an excuse to Ã¢â¬Å"consumed, burned up, replaced and discarded at an ever-accelerating rate." b. I know a lot of people like this. My neighbor is one. Actually, I was thinking about her when I wrote this paper. When the hybrid cars became in vogue, she readily purchased one even is just purchased a huge SUV. All in all, they got four cars and two SUVÃ¢â¬â¢s and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s just two of them (the other is a husband). Not only that, she virtually changed all here television with that earth friendly television and come to think of it, her television were just a couple of years old and there were five of them. Just last month, she had her who house renovated (at around 800 square meter two stories) to make it more Ã¢â¬Å"nature friendlyÃ¢â¬ according to her. She justifies her latest conspicousness that it is Ã¢â¬Å"hybridÃ¢â¬ (for the new cars) anyway and for the replacements and renovations as for the environment. So the purchases were just okay even if they were not
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Sources Of Failure In Strategic Alliance Formulation Commerce Essay Today, organizations face global competition and will on the long run only be successful if they can successfully exploit their value delivery potential of the relationships; strategic alliances and partnerships. Organisations that work together for the purpose of mutual benefit is a concept that is gaining ground in business markets, as market leaders now understand that success from collaboration can be a viable competitive advantage. Organisations entering into alliances in the twenty-first century need to size up their prospective partners in order to ensure that they achieve more success than their predecessors. However, identifying the best partner is only the first step in increasing the probably of alliance success. Proper design and coordination are needed to facilitate the stability of an alliance and to achieve an effective working relationship between the partners. Trust and commitment between alliance partners is the ultimate goal. Only then can the true benefits of ente ring into an alliance be realised. It is really important for a company that is interested in forming a strategic alliance that the partner chosen have the internal capacities needed for the performed activity. In other words, the competencies required to achieve the desired goal. In this sense, small differences in terms of management style and culture between the cooperating firms may end up becoming serious problems that make it difficult to create synergies. There are a large number of characteristics (honesty, positive disposition, efficacy, etc.) that can only be appreciated after several years in the relationship. It is convenient for a firm to work informally with another company before formalising the strategic alliance. This can help to assess levels of compatibility and its potential evolution, since it is with daily contact that we can discover the partners habits and tendencies. INTRODUCTION In todays changing and developing business world, strategic alliances have become an important tool for the success many business ventures. According to Ohmae (1989, p 143), last 20 years have been marked an era of world`s development. Some of the evolutions of this period are the globalisation of markets, quick changes in technology, and the expansion of many domestic organizations` boundaries. As result of these rapid motions, strategic alliances have importantly become a competitive necessity. One of the reasons of this necessity is that a single firm is unlikely to have all the resources and capabilities to accomplish global competitiveness. Thus, cooperation between companies which has complementary resources is always important for survival and growth. (Dussauge, Garrette and Mitchell, 1998) According to Morossini (1999), strategic alliances are change for the firms to reduce risks and share resources, gain knowledge and technology, expand the existing product lines, and opport unity to enter new markets. Strategic alliances provide firms to expand their reach without having to maximise their risk or commit themselves beyond their core business. However, as mentioned above, although strategic alliances bring big opportunities and provide conveniences for many companies, at the same time, there are some challenges that can result with failure for the organizations. The percentage of failures of strategic alliances is changeable from a low 30 per cent (Cullen, 2007), to a high 70 per cent (Dacin et al, 2007). Apart from the expecting risks of entering into an alliance competition between partners is often pointed as the major reason for alliance failure (Dacin et al, 1997). Throughout this paper, it will be examined, analysed and discussed that the most frequent sources of failure in forming strategic alliances and what can be done to mitigate these problems. OBSTACLES THAT ALLIANS PARTNERS FACE Obstacles that alliance partners face can be divided into hard and soft issues. Hard factors involve the linking of different financial and control systems and settling legal disputes (The Economist, 1999). On the other hand, soft factors are related to people and human resource issues, which involve building effective working relationships and integrating disparate corporate cultures (Hitt et al, 1999). It is usually the insufficient attention to the soft issues that result in the failure of many strategic alliances. Pertinently, culture permeates a company, and differences can poison any collaboration (The Economist, 1999). The more culturally distant two firms are, the greater the differences in organisational and administrative practices, employee expectations, and the interpretation of strategic issues (Schneider and De Meyer, 1991, p 307). The problem is compounded with cross-border alliances, where language barriers create communication problems. Poor communication often leads to coordination problems, managerial conflict and distrust. Without trust, the cost of transferring managerial practices and technologies will be high, because safeguards against opportunistic behaviour are needed (Park and Ungson, 1997, p 279). Therefore, in order to avoid such problems, firms entering into an alliance need to be culturally compatible. Indeed, it has been suggested that cultural compatibility is the most important factor in ensuring the long-term success of an alliance (Lane and Beamish, 1990, p 87). SOURCES OF FAILURE IN FORMING STRATEGIC ALLIANCES There are always a series of challenges that have to be faced when forming a strategic alliance and the right people need to be recruited in order for the alliance to be a success. Some of these challenges are discussed below: (Tetenbaum, 2001) Small differences in terms of management style and culture between the cooperating companies may end up becoming serious problems that will make it very difficult to create a synergy, therefore leading to a poor financial performance or even total dissolution of the alliance. It is essential for the human resources team to be aware of these differences in order for them to properly formulate and help with the implementation of the organizational strategy within the alliance. I will present some of the differences that help in the success or failures of a strategic alliance and that have to be addressed by the human resource department. Problems that result from human are significant for the implementation of an alliance, and may alone determine its success or failure. For this reason, it is significant that HRM specifies every member`s ability in the organization, within the management team, and what motivates those skills, in order to place the appropriate individuals in key positions. (Tetenbaum, 2001) The most critical period of a strategic alliance is the beginning part which is a period of maximum uncertainty and apprehension for the workers, along that the company has to find a reaction to their logical concerns, giving these employees something better than what they already have, therefore succeeding in establishing stability long enough to guarantee some permanent results. (Tetenbaum, 2001) A strategic alliance usually brings about the introduction of a series of changes in the co-operating organisations behaviour. These changes can be a sign a potential source of challenges and conflicts with the companys personnel which may lead to the failure of the collaboration, if they are not properly sorted out. (Tetenbaum, 2001) The Culture: Although the organizational change derived from the creation of a strategic alliance is conditioned by the attitude of the human resources, this attitude also depends on the personal values and the corporate culture. This brings us to the following subject which gives us another source of problems when implementing a strategic alliance. (Tetenbaum, 2001) Culture: The existence of different cultures is an obstacle that strategic alliances are forced to encounter. The resistance to change may arise because the low rank employees may have not been properly informed of what the goals are; they might be less experienced than top management at working with people form other culture, or they just do not agree with the new alliance. This is why the human resources team is a key element for the strategic alliance. (Tetenbaum, 2001) Different Types of Culture: National and organizational cultures have an impact on the degree of organizational involvement and outcomes. National culture has been defined by Hofstede as, the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group or category of people from another. (Tetenbaum, 2001) WHAT CAN BE DONE TO MITIGATE THESE PROBLEMS? There are some factors and key point that need to be taken into account by organizations when joining into a strategic alliances or a strategic alliance is being formed. Organizations that fit these important points will always be successful. Some of these important factors can be specified as followings: Organisations entering into alliances in the twenty-first century need to size up their prospective partners in order to ensure that they achieve more success than their predecessors. However, identifying the best partner is only the first step in increasing the probably of alliance success. Proper design and coordination are needed to facilitate the stability of an alliance and to achieve an effective working relationship between the partners. Trust and commitment between alliance partners is the ultimate goal. Only then can the true benefits of entering into an alliance be realised. (Saxton, 1997) Executive managers will need to have know-how; however other competencies will be required to create a synergy. Ideally these competencies will be found in all the persons involved with the project. Some of the competencies required by the human resources management team when selecting the members of the strategic alliance are: flexibility, humbleness, integrity, patience, curiosity, and not afraid of making mistakes. It is important that HRM determine whether the right person can be found within the ranks of the company or whether external recruiting is the best choice. This decision is crucial for the future of the alliance. CONCLUSION In order for an alliance to work the human resources team must take the time to understand the challenges existing when putting two companies together and they have to be willing to unite two groups of managers that will have to plan for and build their new organization; they need to be sensitive to the human, organizational culture, and cultural issues that have to be addressed along the way. Most important, the human resource team needs to find and motivate executives that want to grow their businesses and create added value for their shareholders, customers, employees, and themselves. What we can assume from the several researches that have been done is that, cooperation and effective management are major points for the success of the alliance. From the problems that appear within a strategic alliance, these related to the human resource management which participate in the alliance especially stand out. Therefore, using knowledge related asymmetries may be a way to protect a companys specific asset while gaining valuable knowledge from the alliance without attacking the partner company. Another situation that has to be taken into consideration is that the appearance of cultural challenges does not mean that the strategic alliance will be dissolve. The human resources team has to put in place a training programme for cultural understanding to help employees cope with the differences. On the other hand, it is very important to include managers with multicultural skills within the alliance team to be able to sooth any possible tension. Finally, we can observe that the top reason of creating an alliance with another firm is that the union promotes attainment of strategic goals more quickly and inexpensively than if the company acts on its own. Especially in this era of intense change, rapid technological advance and ever-increasing globalization, alliances enable organizations to gain flexibility, leverage competencies, shared resources, and create opportunities that otherwise are unthinkable. Even though reality shows us that the number of strategic alliances that have succeeded is very low.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Building safe, adequate, durable roads over permafrost soil presents unique challenges to the construction industry. It is not suprising that the mechanisms that lie behind these challenges are explained by the laws of physics. Consequently, as concerned professionals from the engineering community look for inovative ways to deal with the permafrost specter, it is in the realm of physics where they look for the elusive techniques that will enable the extension of the transportation infastructure into the northcountry in a safe, efficient, wise, and economic way. This paper will explore the techniques used to build road embankments over frozen soil. In exploring these techniques, every effort will be made to demonstrate the physical concept that is pertinent. But prior to our examination of diferent methods of permafrost resistent roadbuilding techniques we must start by going back to basics. To understand the construction methodology of arctic roadbuilding we need to understand the mechanics and properties of permafrost. It's All About Heat * What is Permafrost? Permafrost is defined as ground that has been at a temperature below the freezing point of water for more than two years. A large portion of the ground in Alaska is defined as permafrost (some estimates say as much as 80 percent). Permafrost can extend to a depth of several hundred feet, or it can be as little as several feet deep. * Is there permafrost in Fairbanks? Yes. We live in an area defined by "discontinuous" permafrost. This classification refers to the fact that some of the ground is frozen, and some of it is not. Also, it is important to note that the permafrost in this area is known as "warm" permafrost. Warm permafrost is at a temperatur... ...ely be used. Both of these systems are currently being experimented with. Time will tell if these promising techniques provide an economical means of constructing roads over frozen ground. Bibliography Experimental Roadways on Permafrost, McHattie, Esch, Zarling, Conner, Goering, State of Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, July 1983 ACE and Thermosyphon Design Features Loftus Road Extension Project, Goering, State of Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, December 2001 Permafrost at the Geological Survey of Canada, http://sts.gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/permafrost/ Alaska DOT Deals With Permafrost Thaws, Stidger, Ruth,Better Roads , June, 2001 Permafrost, A Problem of Building in Alaska, Seibert, Alaska Co Operative Extension Service The Permafrost Investigation ,Jernstrom, Alaska Housing and Finance Corporation
Monday, November 11, 2019
Somnambulism, commonly known as sleepwalking, is a parasomnia that has six diagnostic criteria that must be met according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV. It is marked by inappropriate physical behaviors that disrupt sleep. Upon awakening the individual is confused and has no memory of the episode. Sleepwalking peaks in childhood and usually resolves itself in adolescence. Adults that experience sleepwalking are more likely to have had episodes as children. The disorder is most prevalent in females during childhood and men in adulthood.Individuals with mood disorders such as anxiety or depression are more likely to present symptoms of somnambulism. Genetic predispositions are very important when determining whether an individual will develop the disorder. However, it is essential to remember that environmental influences like stressful events are usually needed to galvanize the genetic predisposition. The use of medications can both trigger and correct somnambulism. Along with medications, hypnosis, and anticipatory awakening have also been shown to relieve the symptoms of sleepwalking. Somnambulism can be a dangerous disorder.While asleep individuals have been known to put their own lives, as well as the lives of others at risk. There have even been reports of a people who suffer from somnambulism committing murder while asleep. Courts have acknowledged the excuse of somnambulism to declare an individual innocent of their crime. However, this proposes several dangers. How are we supposed to control these individuals from committing another crime? Also, there have not been enough studies on successful treatment, so how will we know that these individuals will be corrected with treatment?It seems as though the consequences for crimes committed while sleepwalking are inadequate. Somnambulism and the Dangers Sleep disorders are separated into two categories, parasomnias or dyssomnias. Dyssomnias are those that produce extreme sleepi ness or difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Parasomnias are those inappropriate physical behaviors that happen during sleep. Somnambulism, or more commonly sleepwalking, is a parasomnia. What do you picture when you think of a person sleepwalking? Waking up in the middle of the night and aimlessly without consequence aimlessly walking around their room?I bet you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think of a person committing murder. The latter is the least known aspect of somnambulism. This paper will address the dangers, and consequences of somnambulism and whether these consequences are appropriate. According to the authors of the DSM IV, to be diagnosed with somnambulism the patient must meet six specific criterions. The individual must have multiple episodes of rising from bed during sleep. Since sleep walking episodes occur during slow-wave sleep, the somnambulism must take place during the first third of the night (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).During the incident the individu al will have reduced alertness and responsiveness (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). They will also don a blank stare and be unresponsive to the efforts of others to wake them up (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Upon awakening the individual will not remember the events from the night before and will suffer from confusion and disorientation (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). However, after the confusion and disorientation the individual will regain full cognitive processes (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).Most importantly, the sleepwalking must cause some sort of distress and or impairment in different aspects of their life (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Sleepwalking cannot be diagnosed as the formal diagnosis if it is due to substance use or medical conditions (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The individual must meet all of the criteria above to be properly diagnosed as an individual with somnambulism. ree because they were sleepwa lking. More precautions need to be taken before somnambulism can be used as an excuse for murder.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Organic Architecture Essays Organic Architecture Essay Organic Architecture Essay One of the most striking personalities in the development of early-twentieth century architecture was Frank Lloyd Wright (1867Ã¢â¬â1959). Wright attended the University of Wisconsin in Madison before moving to Chicago, where he eventually joined the firm headed by Louis Sullivan. Wright set out to create architecture of democracy. Early influences were the volumetric shapes in a set of educational blocks the German educator Friedrich Froebel designed, the organic unity of a Japanese building Wright saw at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, and a Jeffersonian belief in individualism and populism. Always a believer in architecture as natural and organic, Wright saw it as serving free individuals who have the right to move within a free space, envisioned as a nonsymmetrical design interacting spatially with its natural surroundings. He sought to develop an organic unity of planning, structure, materials, and site. Wright identified the principle of continuity as fundamental to understanding his view of organic unity: Classic architecture was all fixation. . . . Now why not let walls, ceilings, floors become seen as component parts of each other? . . This ideal, profound in its architectural implications . . . I called . . . continuity. Wright manifested his vigorous originality early, and by 1900 he had arrived at a style entirely his own. In his work during the first decade of the twentieth century, his cross-axial plan and his fabric of continuous roof planes and screens defined a new domestic architecture. Wright fully expressed these elements and concepts in Robie House, b uilt between 1907 and 1909. Like other buildings in the Chicago area he designed at about the same time, this was called a prairie house. Wright conceived the long, sweeping ground-hugging lines, unconfined by abrupt wall limits, as reaching out toward and capturing the expansiveness of the MidwestÃ¢â¬â¢s great flatlands. Abandoning all symmetry, the architect eliminated a facade, extended the roofs far beyond the walls, and all but concealed the entrance. Wright filled the wandering plan of the Robie House with intricately joined spaces (some large and open, others closed), grouped freely around a great central fireplace. (He believed strongly in the hearthÃ¢â¬â¢s age-old domestic significance. Wright designed enclosed patios, overhanging roofs, and strip windows to provide unexpected light sources and glimpses of the outdoors as people move through the interior space. These elements, together with the open ground plan, create a sense of space-in-motion inside and out. He set m asses and voids in equilibrium; the flow of interior space determined the exterior wall placement. The exteriorÃ¢â¬â¢s sharp angular planes meet at apparently odd angles, matching the complex play of interior solids, which function not as inert containing surfaces but as elements equivalent in role to the designÃ¢â¬â¢s spaces. The Robie House is a good example of WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s naturalism, his adjusting of a building to its site. However, in this particular case, the confines of the city lot constrained the building-to-site relationship more than did the sites of some of WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s more expansive suburban and country homes. The Kaufmann House, nicknamed Fallingwater and designed as a weekend retreat at Bear Run near Pittsburgh, is a prime example of the latter. Perched on a rocky hillside over a small waterfall, this structure extends the Robie HouseÃ¢â¬â¢s blocky masses in all four directions. The contrast in textures between concrete, painted metal, and natural stones in its walls enliven its shapes, as does WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s use of full-length strip windows to create a stunning interweaving of interior and exterior space. The implied message of WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s new architecture was space, not mass- a space designed to fit the patronÃ¢â¬â¢s life and enclosed and divided as required. Wright took special pains to meet his clientÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements, often designing all the accessories of a house. In the late 1930s, he acted on a cherished dream to provide good architectural design for less prosperous people by adapting the ideas of his prairie house to plans for smaller, less expensive dwellings. The publication of WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s plans brought him a measure of fame in Europe, especially in Holland and Germany. The issuance in Berlin in 1910 of a portfolio of his work and an exhibition of his designs the following year stimulated younger architects to adopt some of his ideas about open plans. Some forty years before his career ended, his work was already of revolutionary significance.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Misunderstanding The Meaning of Love Free Online Research Papers What is love? What does it mean? Today many people misuse and misunderstand the meaning of love. It is a word that is thrown around and has little to no meaning for some people anymore. Love is a powerful word that harnesses so much emotion that most people have never even felt before. Love is like a big warm blanket that we can always run and snuggle up in without any regret of what we have done. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t reject us, but loves us for who we are and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t keep a toll for our wrong doings. Like everything in this world, it is two sided; has both its benefits and fallbacks. The true meaning of love is so defined that it seems almost impossible to meet and really truly love someone. The generation of today has forgotten the true meaning of love. To start out, we need to define what this word is in our culture today. According to the fourth edition of the WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s New World College Dictionary, love is, Ã¢â¬Å"a deep and tender feeling of affection for an attachment or devotion to a personÃ¢â¬ ¦ a strong liking for or interest in somethingÃ¢â¬ ¦ sexual passion, sexual intercourseÃ¢â¬ (850). So in our own world of today, we see love as an attachment, an interest, or the act of sex. For some itÃ¢â¬â¢s all of the above, but what about those who just see it as one of these? There are different definitions within the dictionary for different cases, so is love the same thing? No. Our world is so corrupt in its thinking that we canÃ¢â¬â¢t even come up with a simple definition for something that as human beings, feel so passionately about. We are so confused that we give different cases, or situations that the word can be, not is, what we are saying. And we wonder why we donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand certain things anymore. Love is not a hard thing to define. If one were to take family for an example, what is love in this case? Love here is forever, not easy, forgiving, trusting, faithful, support, helpful, selfless, tests ones patients, and confusing at times. What other relationships sound like this in our world today? In the people spectrum, how about friends and neighbors and role models. If we really take the time to think about it, by this list of what love is, we can say that we have a love for music, or sports, or pets. It is when people add in what love is accepted as that we start to loose sight of the true meaning. So if we know what love is, than what is it not? There are a lot of things that love is not. Love is not an attraction or stimulate like the hot girl or guy you see walking down the street that you get the Ã¢â¬Å"hotsÃ¢â¬ for. Love is not sex or a synonym for sex as our world conceives it today. It is not unkempt promises that husbands give to wives and vice a versa. It is not forced, no one can tell you whom you love or are supposed to love. Lastly, love is not easily angered. To have love for someone or something, one must have patience. You cannot love something and be angry at it all the time. This goes with every aspect of ones life. Take music for example; if one is angered easily by the difficulty of music, than why put oneself through agony and despair when all it does is frustrate. The things that we love as humans, we know because no matter what obstacles come in our way we will do everything in our power to make sure that is living and well. Love is our motion of purpos e in a lot of cases in our life. By love being somewhat of a driving force, love is more than just an emotion. In a quest to find out what others felt about love as an emotion, a discussion broke out with my roommate Jacob Montague. Ã¢â¬Å"Love is not an emotion,Ã¢â¬ he stated. Ã¢â¬Å"It is an action. You can say that you love your mom, but do you really love her if you never do what she asks of you?Ã¢â¬ This also goes with the saying, Ã¢â¬Å"actions speak louder than words.Ã¢â¬ There are people in this world who have a very hard time expressing they way they feel to people. So it is the little things in life that really mean a lot to them and allow them to express how they really feel. Walking up and giving hugs, holding hands, kissing, or things not as physical: opening doors, helping with assignments, trusting others with responsibility, or leaving little notes of encouragement to someone in their mailbox. Love is as much as an action as it is an emotion. But what really is the definition of love? How can one pick an absolute definition? If one were to look in the worlds best selling book, The Bible, 1 Corinthians 13:1-8 says: If I speak in tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am only a resounding gong of a clanging cymbal. If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. If I give all I possess to the poor and surrender my body to the flames but have not love, I gain nothing. Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always preservers. What powerful words of wisdom. Even though this is the Christian definition of the love given by God, who can argue with these points? This is a very high standard for someone to live up to, but the rewards of this kind of love are gratifying beyond your most desirable dreams. In this case of love, love is like a big warm blanket that we can always run and snuggle up in without any regret of what we have done. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t reject us, but loves us for who we are and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t keep a toll for our wrong doings. To love someone in this sense, how could one ever fight or be unsatisfied with someone? We are all human beings and are prone to make mistakes. If one doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in sin, they believe in good and evil and wrongdoings. And by truly loving someone in this sense and not keeping a record of them, and truly being able to forgive them in any circumstance, there wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be this nonsense of 40-50 percent of all marriages ending up in a divorce according to di vorcerate.org, and the rate only gets worse for following marriages after a divorce. But now the question is what is the difference between this kind of love and true meaning of love. The love that we have for our spouses, versus our family, versus friends and everything we feel passionately about. Is there a difference? There is a difference in the emotions felt for different people, just as there are different actions that are expressed to show oneÃ¢â¬â¢s love. For friends, the love is based on respect and trusting of opinions and value systems. These are the people we like to show our love through giving them our time. The love towards family is based on support, and forgiveness and trusting of opinions as well. We show them love through support, always being there for them, the time given, and the opinions that are given as a guide through life. For love towards objects and passions such as sports and music is the self-gratification that is received from the accomplishments that are gained from each. But although each of these are all different with how they ar e expressed, they all have the same Once our generation realizes what love truly is, and not just a lustful attraction, our world as a whole will become a better place. When people can start to love others rather than just themselves, forgive others for their wrong doings, and accept people for who they are then we wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have problems such as war and terrorism. Love is the passion to forgive under any circumstance, the grace to forget all wrong doings, the sacrifice of oneself for another, and the ability to be kind in the face of utter devastation and remorse. Can people achieve this love? The answer is yes, but the desire to have it, use it, and become a part of it is up to every individual to make that choice. Research Papers on Misunderstanding The Meaning of LovePersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementWhere Wild and West MeetThe Masque of the Red Death Room meanings19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraHip-Hop is ArtThe Project Managment Office SystemThe Fifth Horseman
Monday, November 4, 2019
Historical contributions of a Sigmund Frued to the field of psychology - Term Paper Example As such, Freudian concepts, which were widely debated among his followers and scholars, were deemed to be controversial yet remained to be worthy of our examination and understanding. This paper will look back at the historical contributions of a Sigmund Freud to the field of psychology. By examining his early life, one can explore his childhood and its influence on his understanding of human behavior. Also, his theories on dream interpretation, psychosexual development, the id and the ego, psychological repression, and transference will be explored to know more about his controversial theories in psychology. Moreover, by taking a look at three of FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s notable followers, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and his daughter Dr. Anna Freud, one can explore on how FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas have influenced his followers to develop their own theory of the mind. Finally, discussion of FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy and contribution to psychology will seal his achievements as one of the most important thi nkers in the 20th century. Early Life On May 6, 1856, Sigismund Schlomo Freud was born in Freiberg, Moravia - a small town which was then part of the Austrian Empire, now known as the Czech Republic. His father, Jacob was a textile dealer and had two children by previous marriage. His mother Amala, who was 20 years younger than his father, gave birth to his first son Sigmund at age 21. Being the first child of eight siblings and in accordance to Jewish tradition, young Sigmund became the favorite in the family. He grew up "partially assimilated, mostly secular JewÃ¢â¬ . Soon, Freud would become loyal follower of 19th century positivists in which he pointed the distinction between religious faith (which is not checkable or correctable) and scientific inquiry (which is both). For himself, this meant the denial of truth-value to any religion whatever, including Judaism.Ã A. Life & Education in Vienna When he was four years old, his father met a business failure and this made his f amily to move from the mountains of Moravia to a cosmopolitan metropolis in Vienna. A bright boy, Freud was admitted to a gymnasium in Leopoldstadt a year ahead of his time in 1865. By the time he graduated in 1873, he was awarded with honors. Initially, Freud intended to study law, but then decided to enter Medical School after having attended a lecture on Goethe's essay On Nature. He then joined the medical faculty at the University of Vienna where he obtained his doctorate in medicine. As early as fromÃ 1876Ã toÃ 1882, Freud worked as a research assistant at the Institute of Physiology under Ernst Brucke, with neurology as his main focus. Ã In 1885 Freud received a one-year scholarship with Charcot at the "Salpetriere" in Paris. In 1886 Freud opened his first neurologist's office in Vienna, Rathausstrasse 7. Under Jean-Martin Charcot, Freud practiced and observed hypnosis as a clinical technique, and began to formulate the beginnings of his theory on the mind. Freud went on to make nervous ailments his specialty, concentrating on hysteria. B. Published Works By 1895, the year he publishedÃ Studies on HysteriaÃ with Josef Breuer, he had made significant progress in mapping out and defining his own theory of the mind. A period of intense work and self-analysis, further inspired by the death of his father, led Freud to his publication ofÃ The Interpretation of DreamsÃ in 1900 and ofÃ Psychopathology of Everyday LifeÃ in 1901. The latter work, offering amusing and easily applicable anecdotes of Freudian slips, found a wide audience for his theories of the mind. By 1902 he finally gained the position of associate professor at the University of Vienna. In 1908 Freud established a Psychoanalytic society in Vienna, and thus his
Saturday, November 2, 2019
The Chrysanthemums - Essay Example Her working apparel is clean and provides security to her while working. She is very particular about her self cleanliness as well as of her farmhouse and ""The Chrysanthemums". She declares that her gardening skills were result of her mother's dextrousness in same work. She has just crossed her youth life and has a craving for going out and experiencing the kind of life other people live and to experience new things. She enjoys a very healthy and humorous relation with her husband who makes sure that he starts or leaves the conversation on a laughing note. Her husband who owns a ranch keeps her happy and cares for her well being. She is very observing and inquisitive by nature and keeps check on her surroundings and notes minute details about some things while even working on her beloved Chrysanthemums. Elisa has a face that becomes strong while assertings herselfat work and changes to more softness when she talks to her husband. Lean and strong, at the same time her face is mature and handsome to be seen as masculine while working on relatively softer stems and branches of the flowers. She is thorough with her work with matching knowledge and skilled hands. She loves going out and away from the usual chorus of farm work. She gets intrigued by stories of life that other people live, and also likes experimenting with things. The moment discussion gets towards chrysanthemums, Elisa gets emotionally attached to them and she helps anyone who appreciates the flower for its heavenly hue. She is a believer and a gifted lady. The spring wagon man initially has some off note talk with Elisa but then talks around things in order to get what he actually wants, the work that he pleaded initially to her. The behaviour of Elisa towards the untidy clothed man was rather appreciable and emphatical. And at last but not least, in parts of story, Elisa is depicted as a somewhat sensuous and very beautiful lady who pampers her self as much she works in her flower garden. At the e nd of the day when she gets ready to go out with her husband, she dresses up lovingly. Now we will talk about the character named Henry Allen. He is the owner of the ranch and Elisa is his wife. He loves Elisa very much and keeps her happy in her strenuous work, around the flower garden. He has an air of romanticism around him whenever he talks to her wife and has a good sense of humour with perfect timing. He plans things around pretty well and manages the ranch well also. There is also mention of him selling some fordson at a rate which was profitable. He and his wife share a very fulfilling relation together and his teasing and witty yet hilarious remarks refreshes Elisa quickly. Ain the end of the story while riding a roadster, he is very understanding and caring to her wifes responses and tries to reinforce her smile back. He loves his wife very much and it shows silently in their normal conversations. In the end we will have to discuss the character of a spring wagon chariot who is a daily wager and is not well off in his clothes, attire and vehicle which has a rather amusing fleet of one horse and one donkey clubbed